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1.
End of life (EOL) phase of a product is receiving more attention due to increase in environmental concerns, and many studies have been conducted for value creation in EOL, focusing on concepts as remanufacturing, reuse and recycling in sustainable production manner. This study especially focuses on one of global problem, e-waste. To minimise the amount of wastes and maximise recovered materials from EOL, disassembly is one of the most important concept, associated with reuse, and balancing disassembly line in an optimal way is essential for organisations. In disassembly line balancing (DLB), not only precedence of tasks, but also risk criteria related to environment and human safety should be considered for sustainability. The aim of this study is to propose a model based on triple bottom line (TBL) dimensions, i.e. human safety, environmental safety and business criteria. To achieve sustainability in DLB, and for risk assessment in sustainable DLB, it had been decided to use a multi-criteria method, i.e. TODIM, acronym in Portuguese of ‘Tomada de Decisão Iterativa Multicritério’. The proposed model included 22 disassembly criteria categorised under TBL dimensions, which are derived from the literature. Implementation of the study was conducted for computer disassembly processes, and as a result of the study approximately 12% an improvement in cycle time was succeeded. In the long run, the integration of sustainability in disassembly operations may contribute to the competitive advantage of the company in terms of differentiation and corporate image by achieving business, environment and human targets simultaneously.  相似文献   
2.
ABSTRACT

In this paper, we review some algebraic control system. Precisely, linear and bilinear systems on Euclidean spaces and invariant and linear systems on Lie groups. The fourth classes of systems have a common issue: to any class, there exists an associated subgroup. From this object, we survey the controllability property. Especially, from those coming from our contribution to the theory.  相似文献   
3.
Structures of grain boundaries and triple line junctions in nanocrystalline materials are of interest owing to large fractions of atoms in nanocrystalline materials being at these interfacial positions. Grain boundary and triple line junction structures in nanocrystalline palladium have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The main micro structural features observed include the varying atomic structures of grain boundaries and the presence of disordered regions at triple line junctions. Also, there is variation in lattice parameters in different nanocrystalline grains. Geometric phase analysis is used to quantify atomic displacements within nanocrystalline grains. Displacement fields thus detected indicate links to the interface structures.  相似文献   
4.
Controllability of One Spin and Two Interacting Spins   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Mathematics of Control, Signals, and Systems - ?We consider the problem of steering control for the systems of one spin ½ particle and two interacting spin ½ particles in an...  相似文献   
5.
X射线三轴晶衍射法测量半绝缘GaAs单晶的化学配比   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
采用X射线三轴晶衍射法,根据As间隙原子对作为过量As在GaAs单晶材料中存在的主要形式的模型,可以无损、高精度测量半绝缘GaAs单晶的化学配比.并探讨了引起晶格变化的原因及其与熔体组分的关系,对于制备高质量GaAs单晶及其光电器件具有重要的意义.  相似文献   
6.
 柴达木盆地西部南区的阿尔金山前带是寻找岩性地层油气藏的有利地区。但该区沉积物源多、砂层薄,仅用常规的、单一的方法难以取得岩性地层油气藏勘探的效果。本文通过建立层序地层格架确定寻找岩性油气藏的主要目的层段,应用重矿物组分、测井响应、波阻抗反演等多种方法进行沉积物源和岩性圈闭的综合识别,在柴达木盆地西部南区七个泉构造斜坡带上确定一个地层岩性圈闭,已获得钻探的证实。  相似文献   
7.
Numerical simulations are investigated to describe precisely the shock wave reflections in supersonic steady air flow field. The main objectives are to study the influence of the wedge trailing edge corner angle, of the numerical methods and of the viscous effects on the shock wave reflections and on the hysteresis behavior. The computations are done with different MUSCL-TVD finite volume schemes and the corresponding results are compared. The flow viscosity is also taken into account and comparisons are made between inviscid and viscous flow simulations. The results display the non-negligible influence of the numerical scheme accuracy on the results, mainly on the position and height of the Mach stem, and the relatively weak influence of the flow viscosity on these parameters. Comparisons between numerical results and experimental data have also been done and a good agreement is only observed for small wedge angles mainly due to the three-dimensional effects in the experimental setup.  相似文献   
8.
For the investigations of the gas-liquid phase equilibria, a new apparatus has been developed capable of simultaneously determining the pressure and the liquid and vapor densities using Archimedes' principle. The relative measurement uncertainties of the liquid and vapor densities of R134a (purity, 99.999%) at 313 K are 2×10–4 and 7×10–4, respectively (95% confidence level). For the measurements in the liquid region along nine quasi-isochores at pressures up to 5 MPa, an isochoric apparatus was used. The relative measurement uncertainty ofpv/(RT) is less than 1×10–3. In addition to the investigation of the (p, v, T) properties, the temperature and pressure at the triple point and the vapor pressure between the triple point and 265 K were measured. On the basis of these data, a vapor pressure correlation has been developed that reproduces the measured vapor pressures within the uncertainty of measurement. The results of our measurements are compared with a fundamental equation for R134a, which is based on the measurements of other research groups.Paper presented at the Twelfth Symposium on Thermophysical Properties, June 19–24, 1994, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A.  相似文献   
9.
用CuBr脉冲激光光动力学疗法治疗鲜红斑痣8例21个区域,其中11个区红色完全褪去,7个区残留少量浅色,3个区红色明显褪去,20个区域无疤痕形成。  相似文献   
10.
Relative grain boundary energies can be simply related to true dihedral angles, which are the angles between grain boundary planes meeting at triple edges in polycrystals. Some limited efforts in the measurement of true dihedral angles have used the technique of serial sectioning, which is usually cumbersome and time consuming. In this study the three‐dimensional probe called the ‘disector’ has been employed to evaluate true dihedral angles. This probe, combined with automated image processing, introduces precision as well as efficiency, overcomes the disadvantages of the two‐dimensional probe and is far less tedious and less complicated than serial sectioning. It is shown that the technique is relatively simple and therefore can be applied to obtain a significantly large and accurate statistical sample of true dihedral angles. The application of this method is demonstrated by evaluating the triple junction geometry and the associated relative grain boundary energies in polycrystalline 316L austenitic stainless steel.  相似文献   
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