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1.
This study unites investigations into the linguistic relativity of color categories with research on children's category acquisition. Naming, comprehension, and memory for colors were tracked in 2 populations over a 3-year period. Children from a seminomadic equatorial African culture, whose language contains 5 color terms, were compared with a group of English children. Despite differences in visual environment, language, and education, they showed similar patterns of term acquisition. Both groups acquired color vocabulary slowly and with great individual variation. Those knowing no color terms made recognition errors based on perceptual distance, and the influence of naming on memory increased with age. An initial perceptually driven color continuum appears to be progressively organized into sets appropriate to each culture and language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献   
2.
According to the knowledge partitioning framework, people sometimes master complex tasks by creating multiple independent parcels of partial knowledge. Research has shown that knowledge parcels may contain mutually contradictory information, and that each parcel may be used without regard to knowledge that is demonstrably present in other parcels. This article reports 4 experiments that investigated knowledge partitioning in categorization. When component boundaries of a complex categorization were identified by a context cue, a significant proportion of participants learned partial and independent categorization strategies that were chosen on the basis of context. For those participants, a strategy used in one context was unaffected by knowledge demonstrably present in other contexts, suggesting that knowledge partitioning in categorization can be complete. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献   
3.
对多线对填充型UTP5类室外干线电缆的性能,设计作了简单介绍,并提出了控制要点。  相似文献   
4.
Understanding how aging influences cognition across different cultures has been hindered by a lack of standardized, cross-referenced verbal stimuli. This study introduces a database of such item-level stimuli for both younger and older adults, in China and the United States, and makes 3 distinct contributions. First, the authors specify which item categories generalize across age and/or cultural groups, rigorously quantifying differences among them. Second, they introduce novel, powerful methods to measure between-group differences in freely generated ranked data, the rank-ordered logit model and Hellinger Affinity. Finally, a broad archive of tested, cross-linguistic stimuli is now freely available to researchers: data, similarity measures, and all stimulus materials for 105 categories and 4 culture-by-age groups, comprising over 10,000 fully translated unique item responses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献   
5.
Men exhibit much higher levels of genital and subjective arousal to sexual stimuli containing their preferred sex than they do to stimuli containing only the nonpreferred sex. This study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how this category-specific pattern would be reflected in the brains of homosexual (n = 11) and heterosexual (n = 11) men. Comparisons of activation to preferred sexual stimuli, nonpreferred sexual stimuli, and sports stimuli revealed large networks correlated with sexual arousal, spanning multiple cortical and subcortical areas. Both homosexual and heterosexual men exhibited category-specific arousal in brain activity. Within the amygdala, greater preference-related activity was observed in homosexual men, but it is unclear whether this is a cause or a consequence of their sexuality. In a subsequent analysis of regions hypothesized to support arousal, both participant groups demonstrated widespread increases in evoked activity for preferred stimuli. Aggregate data from these regions produced significant differences between stimulus types in 16 out of 22 participants. Significant activational differences matched reported sexual orientation in 15 of these 16 participants, representing an advance in psychophysiological measures of arousal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献   
6.
NL句法分析中超语法符合现象的处理   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
本文回顾并总结了句法层次上六种不同类型的超语法符合(extra grammaticality,简称EG)现象及它们的恢复原则, 描述了如何用扩充的GLR分析器(Extended GLR Parser简称EGLR)完整解决其中四种、部分解决其余两种现象的技术。在处理后两种现象时, 要涉及语义问题。  相似文献   
7.
8.
中国石化低渗透油藏开发状况及前景   总被引:13,自引:6,他引:7  
选择渗透率、油藏原始压力和油藏埋藏深度3个指标,结合中国石化已开发的286个低渗透油藏开发单元特点,将低渗透油藏细分并组合为深层高压特低渗透油藏、中深层常压特低渗透油藏、浅层低压特低渗透油藏、深层高压低渗透油藏、中深层常压低渗透油藏和浅层常压低渗透油藏6种主要类型,不同类型油藏开采特征差异较大。提出了加强储层和渗流机理研究、合理加密井网、实施精细注水、应用整体压裂改造和井筒提升技术、实施二氧化碳驱和天然气驱先导试验等改善低渗透油藏开发状况的思路,指出下一步应利用水平井和分支水平井开采各种类型低渗透油藏,提高油藏开发经济效益,开拓中国石化乃至中国低渗透油藏开发前景。  相似文献   
9.
The purpose of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of the role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory by examining learning strategies among patients with basal ganglia dysfunction. Using a probabilistic category learning task (the "weather prediction" task) previously shown to be sensitive to basal ganglia function, the authors examined patterns of performance during learning and used mathematical models to capture different learning strategies. Results showed that patients with Parkinson's disease exhibit different patterns of strategy use. Specifically, most controls initially used a simple, but suboptimal, strategy that focused on single-cue-outcome associations; eventually, however, most controls adopted a more complex, optimal learning strategy, integrating single-cue associations to predict outcomes for multiple-cue stimuli. In contrast, the majority of individuals with Parkinson's disease continued to rely on simple single-cue learning strategies throughout the experiment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献   
10.
Reports an error in "Learning myopia: An adaptive recency effect in category learning" by Matt Jones and Winston R. Sieck (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2003[Jul], Vol 29[4], 626-640). On page 633, Table 2, the values in columns (T, P) and (P, T) in the dual condition row incorrectly read .10 and .90, respectively. The correct values are .90 and .10, respectively. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2003-06626-013.) Recency effects (REs) have been well established in memory and probability learning paradigms but have received little attention in category learning research. Extant categorization models predict REs to be unaffected by learning, whereas a functional interpretation of REs, suggested by results in other domains, predicts that people are able to learn sequential dependencies and incorporate this information into their responses. These contrasting predictions were tested in 2 experiments involving a classification task in which outcome sequences were autocorrelated. Experiment 1 showed that reliance on recent outcomes adapts to the structure of the task, in contrast to models' predictions. Experiment 2 provided constraints on how sequential information is learned and suggested possible extensions to current models to account for this learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献   
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