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1.
Direct allorecognition is the earliest and most potent immune response against a kidney allograft. Currently, it is thought that passenger donor professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are responsible. Further, many studies support that graft ischemia-reperfusion injury increases the probability of acute rejection. We evaluated the possible role of primary human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) in direct allorecognition by CD4+ T-cells and the effect of anoxia-reoxygenation. In cell culture, we detected that RPTECs express all the required molecules for CD4+ T-cell activation (HLA-DR, CD80, and ICAM-1). Anoxia-reoxygenation decreased HLA-DR and CD80 but increased ICAM-1. Following this, RPTECs were co-cultured with alloreactive CD4+ T-cells. In T-cells, zeta chain phosphorylation and c-Myc increased, indicating activation of T-cell receptor and co-stimulation signal transduction pathways, respectively. T-cell proliferation assessed with bromodeoxyuridine assay and with the marker Ki-67 increased. Previous culture of RPTECs under anoxia raised all the above parameters in T-cells. FOXP3 remained unaffected in all cases, signifying that proliferating T-cells were not differentiated towards a regulatory phenotype. Our results support that direct allorecognition may be mediated by RPTECs even in the absence of donor-derived professional APCs. Also, ischemia-reperfusion injury of the graft may enhance the above capacity of RPTECs, increasing the possibility of acute rejection.  相似文献   
2.
The main goal of this paper is to design a compensator able to restore the nominal behavior of a planar system, which is rendered chaotic by an unmeasurable sinusoidal disturbance input. To reach such a goal, some instruments, taken from algebraic geometry, are used to estimate the unmeasurable disturbance from the time derivatives of the output of the system and of the control input. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
This paper investigates a novel compound control scheme combined with the advantages of trajectory linearization control (TLC) and alternative active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for hypersonic reentry vehicle (HRV) attitude tracking system with bounded uncertainties. Firstly, in order to overcome actuator saturation problem, nonlinear tracking differentiator (TD) is applied in the attitude loop to achieve fewer control consumption. Then, linear extended state observers (LESO) are constructed to estimate the uncertainties acting on the LTV system in the attitude and angular rate loop. In addition, feedback linearization (FL) based controllers are designed using estimates of uncertainties generated by LESO in each loop, which enable the tracking error for closed-loop system in the presence of large uncertainties to converge to the residual set of the origin asymptotically. Finally, the compound controllers are derived by integrating with the nominal controller for open-loop nonlinear system and FL based controller. Also, comparisons and simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategy.  相似文献   
4.
As well-known disturbance rejection methods, active disturbance rejection control and disturbance observer-based control can effectively improve the control performances of complex systems in the presence of disturbances. However, the accurate rejection of multiple disturbances for control systems of practical engineering, for example, the attitude control system of flexible spacecraft, is still a bottleneck problem. In order to further improve the anti-disturbance capability and reduce the conservativeness, this paper proposes a novel enhanced anti-disturbance control law for the attitude control system of flexible spacecraft by combining active disturbance rejection control and disturbance observer-based control in a unified framework. More specifically, the disturbance from flexible vibration is described by an uncertain exogenous system based on the partially known information including elastic damping ratios and modal frequencies. The disturbance observer-based control is utilized to estimate and thereby reject this disturbance. On the other hand, the other disturbances such as external environmental disturbance and complex model nonlinearity are merged into a equivalent disturbance with bounded derivative, which is compensated by using the active disturbance rejection control law. Stability and robustness analysis are carried out for the disturbance observer and extended state observer. Finally, simulation results of low-earth-orbit flexible satellite are presented to verify the effectiveness of proposed methods.  相似文献   
5.
热管传热性能对小型热管换热器散热效能影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
许素雯  张红  庄骏 《石油机械》2006,34(12):14-17
在零重力辅助下,小热管热阻是小型热管换热器散热效能的重要影响因素之一。基于集总参数法对于换热器系统数值计算的高效性思想,建立了热管、热管换热器的集总参数模型。对同一热管换热器选用不同传热性能的热管,在不同传热温差和流体质量流速下,就其散热效能进行了数值计算。计算结果表明,在零重力辅助下,热管换热器管内热阻存在一临界值Rcri。当热阻RHP≤Rcri时,管外热阻起主导作用,热管换热器的散热效能εh几乎不随热管管内热阻的值而变化。  相似文献   
6.
BACKGROUND: The first stage of the cork industrial process generates great volumes of wastewater with moderate to high organic pollutant content that must be purified using different procedures, such as filtration by membranes. RESULTS: The tangential filtration of these wastewaters was studied using two different laboratory equipments. In the first one, three ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were tested, with molecular weight cut‐off (MWCO) 100 kDa and 30 kDa, and two operating modes were used: total recycling of permeate and retentate streams, and in continuous mode, without recycling both streams. In the total recycling UF experiments, the influence of the operating variables on the permeate flux was first established. The effectiveness of the different membranes was determined by evaluating the rejection coefficients for several parameters that measure the global pollutant content of the effluent. The values found for these rejection coefficients were in the following order: ellagic acid and color > absorbance at 254 nm > tannic content > COD (chemical oxygen demand). In the continuous mode experiments, the fouling mechanism for each membrane was established by fitting the experimental data to various filtration fouling models given in the literature. The operating mode in the second equipment was batch concentration, and additional experiments were carried out with an UF membrane (2 kDa), and with a NF membrane (with MWCO in the range 150–300 Da). CONCLUSIONS: The three operating modes tested provided different rejection levels of organic matter; among them, the most effective procedure tested was batch concentration mode using a NF membrane. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry  相似文献   
7.
介绍有源声表面波滤波组件的设计思路。报道最新研制的高性能滤波组件,其中心频率40MHz,3dB相对带宽0.8%,阻带抑制优于100dB,矩形系数(Δf100dB/Δf3dB)小于3,输入输出端口电压驻波比接近1。组件体积85mm×35mm×24mm,重量小于115g  相似文献   
8.
Personality processes relating to social perception have been shown to play a significant role in the experience of stress. In 5 studies, the authors demonstrate that early stage attentional processes influence the perception of social threat and modify the human stress response. The authors first show that cortisol release in response to a stressful situation correlates with selective attention toward social threat. Second, the authors show in 2 laboratory studies that this attentional pattern, most evident among individuals with low self-esteem, can be modified with a repetitive training task. Next, in a field study, students trained to modify their attentional pattern to reduce vigilance for social threat showed lower self-reported stress related to their final exam. In a final field study with telemarketers, the attentional training task led to increased self-esteem, decreased cortisol and perceived stress responses, higher confidence, and greater work performance. Taken together, these results demonstrate the impact of antecedent-focused strategies on the late-stage consequences of social stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献   
9.
This article presents the abandonment-symbiosis hypothesis. This hypothesis pertains to the dynamics of suicide in youngsters who experience difficulties in separation from their symbiotic families. It is suggested that such youngsters have experienced various types of rejection and abandonment in early childhood and have developed insecure attachment styles and insufficient ego functions in order to cope with difficulties. It is also suggested that these youngsters have become scapegoats by their dysfunctional families and that they are held in a symbiotic grip in order to continue to bear the negative projections of their families. As such, they are prevented from developing a proper sense of individuation and autonomy. The sequence that begins with abandonment and continues with symbiosis is a reversal of normal development is critical for the emergence of suicidal behavior. The various aspects of the abandonment-symbiosis hypothesis are demonstrated by case studies and empirical data. A combination of individual and family treatment is recommended as the best approach for the treatment of such youngsters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献   
10.
设计了一种结构简单,抗干扰能力极强的计算机通信接口电路。该电路利用模拟开关实现了全数字二态电平(1,0)与三态电平(1,0,-1)之间的相互转换;利用模拟开关导通电阻的动态效应以及MOS晶体管开启电压Vτ的衬偏效应,提高了接收电路的抗干扰能力,提出了一种与共模干扰无关的模拟数字混合接收电路。  相似文献   
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