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1.
Cell surface and secreted proteins provide essential functions for multicellular life. They enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen co-translationally, where they mature and fold into their complex three-dimensional structures. The ER is populated with a host of molecular chaperones, associated co-factors, and enzymes that assist and stabilize folded states. Together, they ensure that nascent proteins mature properly or, if this process fails, target them for degradation. BiP, the ER HSP70 chaperone, interacts with unfolded client proteins in a nucleotide-dependent manner, which is tightly regulated by eight DnaJ-type proteins and two nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs), SIL1 and GRP170. Loss of SIL1′s function is the leading cause of Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS), an autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder. The development of animal models has provided insights into SIL1′s functions and MSS-associated pathologies. This review provides an in-depth update on the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying SIL1′s NEF activity and its role in maintaining ER homeostasis and normal physiology. A precise understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with the loss of SIL1 may allow for the development of new pharmacological approaches to treat MSS.  相似文献   
2.
In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) is being increasingly utilised in disaster management activities. The public is engaged with AI in various ways in these activities. For instance, crowdsourcing applications developed for disaster management to handle the tasks of collecting data through social media platforms, and increasing disaster awareness through serious gaming applications. Nonetheless, there are limited empirical investigations and understanding on public perceptions concerning AI for disaster management. Bridging this knowledge gap is the justification for this paper. The methodological approach adopted involved: Initially, collecting data through an online survey from residents (n = 605) of three major Australian cities; Then, analysis of the data using statistical modelling. The analysis results revealed that: (a) Younger generations have a greater appreciation of opportunities created by AI-driven applications for disaster management; (b) People with tertiary education have a greater understanding of the benefits of AI in managing the pre- and post-disaster phases, and; (c) Public sector administrative and safety workers, who play a vital role in managing disasters, place a greater value on the contributions by AI in disaster management. The study advocates relevant authorities to consider public perceptions in their efforts in integrating AI in disaster management.  相似文献   
3.
In this work, we developed a novel system of isovalent Zr4+ and donor Nb5+ co-doped CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics to enhance dielectric response. The influences of Zr4+ and Nb5+ co-substituting on the colossal dielectric response and relaxation behavior of the CCTO ceramics fabricated by a conventional solid-phase synthesis method were investigated methodically. Co-doping of Zr4+ and Nb5+ ions leads to a significant reduction in grain size for the CCTO ceramics sintered at 1060 °C for 10 h. XRD and Raman results of the CaCu3Ti3.8-xZrxNb0.2O12 (CCTZNO) ceramics show a cubic perovskite structure with space group Im-3. The first principle calculation result exhibits a better thermodynamic stability of the CCTO structure co-doped with Zr4+ and Nb5+ ions than that of single-doped with Zr4+ or Nb5+ ion. Interestingly, the CCTZNO ceramics exhibit greatly improved dielectric constant (~105) at a frequency range of 102–105 Hz and at a temperature range of 20–210 °C, indicating a giant dielectric response within broader frequency and temperature ranges. The dielectric properties of CCTZNO ceramics were analyzed from the viewpoints of defect-dipole effect and internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) model. Accordingly, the immensely enhanced dielectric response is primarily ascribed to the complex defect dipoles associated with oxygen vacancies by co-doping Zr4+ and Nb5+ ions into CCTO structure. In addition, the obvious dielectric relaxation behavior has been found in CCTZNO ceramics, and the relaxation process in middle frequency regions is attributed to the grain boundary response confirmed by complex impedance spectroscopy and electric modulus.  相似文献   
4.
Smartphones are a promising tool as student response systems (SRS) for interactive teaching due to their widespread diffusion. Here, the main purpose is to assess the efficacy of smartphone-based SRS in large classroom settings of undergraduate Thermodynamics, as representative of engineering courses requiring high-level cognitive skills for problem solving. Four sets of multiple-choice questions were presented during the course. Overall, the results refer to 1055 students between control and SRS classes, each corresponding to a3 years period.One of the main results of this work is the strong linear correlation between the average questionnaire score and the final exam grade (R2 = 0.91). A similar correlation, although with a lower value of R2, is already found in the first questionnaire, thus showing the SRS high predictive power of class performance. The results of this study provide guidance for a quantitative use of smartphone-based SRS in teaching basic disciplines. The SRS monitoring capability allows early detection of struggling students, thus paving the way to personalized tutoring and improved student engagement in active learning practices. This approach is especially important in emergency situations, such as the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, when distance learning is widely adopted, and remote interactive tools are highly needed.  相似文献   
5.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is an adaptive program to cope with cellular stress that disturbs the function and homeostasis of ER, which commonly occurs during cancer progression to late stage. Late-stage cancers, mostly requiring chemotherapy, often develop treatment resistance. Chemoresistance has been linked to ER stress response; however, most of the evidence has come from studies that correlate the expression of stress markers with poor prognosis or demonstrate proapoptosis by the knockdown of stress-responsive genes. Since ER stress in cancers usually persists and is essentially not induced by genetic manipulations, we used low doses of ER stress inducers at levels that allowed cell adaptation to occur in order to investigate the effect of stress response on chemoresistance. We found that prolonged tolerable ER stress promotes mesenchymal–epithelial transition, slows cell-cycle progression, and delays the S-phase exit. Consequently, cisplatin-induced apoptosis was significantly decreased in stress-adapted cells, implying their acquisition of cisplatin resistance. Molecularly, we found that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) ubiquitination and the expression of polymerase η, the main polymerase responsible for translesion synthesis across cisplatin-DNA damage, were up-regulated in ER stress-adaptive cells, and their enhanced cisplatin resistance was abrogated by the knockout of polymerase η. We also found that a fraction of p53 in stress-adapted cells was translocated to the nucleus, and that these cells exhibited a significant decline in the level of cisplatin-DNA damage. Consistently, we showed that the nuclear p53 coincided with strong positivity of glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78) on immunostaining of clinical biopsies, and the cisplatin-based chemotherapy was less effective for patients with high levels of ER stress. Taken together, this study uncovers that adaptation to ER stress enhances DNA repair and damage tolerance, with which stressed cells gain resistance to chemotherapeutics.  相似文献   
6.
The influence of cementite spheroidization on the impact toughness and electrochemical properties of a high-carbon steel has been thoroughly investigated in this study. Heavy warm rolling, followed by 2 h of annealing, has resulted in near-complete spheroidization, leading to a microstructure consisting of nano-cementite globules dispersed in the ultrafine-grained ferritic matrix. The Charpy impact test exhibited superior impact toughness with increased spheroidization. It is validated by the presence of abundant dimples in the fractographs of spheroidized specimens, in contrast to the as-received one that experienced a brittle failure due to its lamellar pearlitic structure. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) carried out in a 3.5% NaCl solution revealed that the corrosion resistance of the alloy gets improved with the increase in the degree of spheroidization. This is attributed to the lower susceptibility of the spheroidized specimen to microgalvanic corrosion owing to the minimum area of contact between nano-spheroidized cementite and ferrite, as elucidated with the help of EIS results aided by equivalent electrical circuit model.  相似文献   
7.
The esophagus is a tubular-shaped muscular organ where swallowed fluids and muscular contractions constitute a highly dynamic environment. The turbulent, coordinated processes that occur through the oropharyngeal conduit can often compromise targeted administration of therapeutic drugs to a lesion, significantly reducing therapeutic efficacy. Here, magnetically guidable drug vehicles capable of strongly adhering to target sites using a bioengineered mussel adhesive protein (MAP) to achieve localized delivery of therapeutic drugs against the hydrodynamic physiological conditions are proposed. A suite of highly uniform microparticles embedded with iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles (MAP@IO MPs) is microfluidically fabricated using the genipin-mediated covalent cross-linking of bioengineered MAP. The MAP@IO MPs are successfully targeted to a specific region and prolongedly retained in the tubular-structured passageway. In particular, orally administered MAP@IO MPs are effectively captured in the esophagus in vivo in a magnetically guidable manner. Moreover, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded MAP@IO MPs exhibit a sustainable DOX release profile, effective anticancer therapeutic activity, and excellent biocompatibility. Thus, the magnetically guidable locomotion and robust underwater adhesive properties of the proteinaceous soft microbots can provide an intelligent modular approach for targeted locoregional therapeutics delivery to a specific lesion site in dynamic fluid-associated tubular organs such as the esophagus.  相似文献   
8.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(11):15056-15063
Hydrogen (H2) sensors based on metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) are promising for many applications such as a rocket propellant, industrial gas and the safety of storage. However, poor selectivity at low analyte concentrations, and independent response on high humidity limit the practical applications. Herein, we designed rGO-wrapped SnO2–Pd porous hollow spheres composite (SnO2–Pd@rGO) for high performance H2 sensor. The porous hollow structure was from the carbon sphere template. The rGO wrapping was via self-assembly of GO on SnO2-based spheres with subsequent thermal reduction in H2 ambient. This sensor exhibited excellently selective H2 sensing performances at 390 °C, linear response over a broad concentration range (0.1–1000 ppm) with recovery time of only 3 s, a high response of ~8 to 0.1 ppm H2 in a minute, and acceptable stability under high humidity conditions (e. g. 80%). The calculated detection limit of 16.5 ppb opened up the possibility of trace H2 monitoring. Furthermore, this sensor demonstrated certain response to H2 at the minimum concentration of 50 ppm at 130 °C. These performances mainly benefited from the special hollow porous structure with abundant heterojunctions, the catalysis of the doped-PdOx, the relative hydrophobic surface from rGO, and the deoxygenation after H2 reduction.  相似文献   
9.
The use of field robots can greatly decrease the amount of time, effort, and associated risk compared to if human workers were to carryout certain tasks such as disaster response. However, transportability and reliability remain two main issues for most current robot systems. To address the issue of transportability, we have developed a lightweight modularizable platform named AeroArm. To address the issue of reliability, we utilize a multimodal sensing approach, combining the use of multiple sensors and sensor types, and the use of different detection algorithms, as well as active continuous closed‐loop feedback to accurately estimate the state of the robot with respect to the environment. We used Challenge 2 of the 2017 Mohammed Bin Zayed International Robotics Competition as an example outdoor manipulation task, demonstrating the capabilities of our robot system and approach in achieving reliable performance in the fields, and ranked fifth place internationally in the competition.  相似文献   
10.
Chitosan (CHT) is a non-toxic and inexpensive compound obtained by deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of arthropods as well as of the cell walls of many fungi. In agriculture CHT is used to control numerous diseases on various horticultural commodities but, although different mechanisms have been proposed, the exact mode of action of CHT is still unknown. In sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, CHT induces a set of defense/stress responses that includes production of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO). We investigated the possible signaling role of these reactive molecules in some CHT-induced responses by means of inhibitors of production and/or scavengers. The results show that both reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are not only a mere symptom of stress conditions but are involved in the responses induced by CHT in sycamore cells. In particular, NO appears to be involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that shows apoptotic features like DNA fragmentation, increase in caspase-3-like activity and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion. On the contrary, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that does not show these apoptotic features but presents increase in lipid peroxidation.  相似文献   
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