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1.
The demand for clean energy use has been increasing worldwide, and hydrogen has attracted attention as an alternative energy source. The efficient transport of hydrogen must be established such that hydrogen may be used as an energy source. In this study, we considered the influences of various parameters in the transportation of liquefied hydrogen using type C tanks in shipping vessels. The sloshing and thermal flows were considered in the transportation of liquefied hydrogen, which exists as a cryogenic liquid at ?253 °C. In this study, the sloshing flow was analyzed using a numerical approach. A multiphase sloshing simulation was performed using the volume of fluid method for the observation and analysis of the internal flow. First, a sloshing experiment according to the gas-liquid density ratio performed by other researchers was utilized to verify the simulation technique and investigate the characteristics of liquefied hydrogen. Based on the results of this experiment, a sloshing simulation was then performed for a type C cargo tank for liquefied hydrogen carriers under three different filling level conditions. The sloshing impact pressure inside of the tank was measured via simulation and subjected to statistical analysis. In addition, the influence of sloshing flow on the appendages installed inside of the type C tank (stiffened ring and swash bulkhead) was quantitatively evaluated. In particular, the influence of the sloshing flow inside of the type C tank on the appendages can be utilized as an important indicator at the design stage. Furthermore, if such sloshing impact forces are repeatedly experienced over an extended period of time under cryogenic conditions, the behavior of the tank and appendages must be analyzed in terms of fatigue and brittle failure to ensure the safety of the transportation operation.  相似文献   
2.
The article investigates the finite-time adaptive fuzzy control for a class of nonlinear systems with output constraint and input dead-zone. First, by skillfully combining the barrier Lyapunov function, backstepping design method, and finite-time control theory, a novel adaptive state-feedback tracking controller is constructed, and the output constraint of the nonlinear system is not violated. Second, the fuzzy logic system is used to approximate unknown function in the nonlinear system. Third, the finite-time command filter is introduced to avoid the problem of “complexity explosion” caused by repeated differentiations of the virtual control signal in conventional backstepping control schemes. Meanwhile, a new saturation function is added in the compensating signal for filter error to improve control accuracy. Finally, based on Lyapunov stability analysis, all the signals of the closed-loop are proved to be semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood region of the origin in a finite time. A simulation example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness for the proposed control scheme.  相似文献   
3.
This article presents a state-space model with time-delay to map the relationship between known input-output data for discrete systems. For the given input-output data, a model identification algorithm combining parameter estimation and state estimation is proposed in line with the causality constraints. Consequently, this article proposes a least squares parameter estimation algorithm, and analyzes its convergence for the studied systems to prove that the parameter estimation errors converge to zero under the persistent excitation conditions. In control system design, the U-model based control is introduced to provide a unilateral platform to improve the design efficiency and generality. A simulation portfolio from modeling to control is provided with computational experiments to validate the derived results.  相似文献   
4.
诱导式卫星欺骗干扰可诱导航空器逐渐偏离预定航迹,难以被发现,因此及时有效地检测干扰是飞行安全的保障。在现有紧组合导航体制基础上,设计了一种基于误差估值累加开环校正的紧组合导航结构,并证明了其性能与传统闭环校正紧组合导航性能等效。在此结构中,将紧组合导航系统与自适应序贯概率比检测方法结合,提出了一种基于误差估值累加开环校正的诱导式欺骗检测方法,融合紧组合导航信息与其他不受欺骗影响的导航信息,构建欺骗检测统计量进行诱导式欺骗检测。仿真结果表明,开环校正结构可避免随时间累加的惯性导航系统误差所导致的组合导航滤波器发散问题,同时欺骗检测方法可进一步提高算法对“最坏”情形下微小诱导式欺骗的检测效果。  相似文献   
5.
In recent years, the invert anomalies of operating railway tunnels in water-rich areas occur frequently, which greatly affect the transportation capacity of the railway lines. Tunnel drainage system is a crucial factor to ensure the invert stability by regulating the external water pressure (EWP). By means of a three-dimensional (3D) printing model, this paper experimentally investigates the deformation behavior of the invert for the tunnels with the traditional drainage system (TDS) widely used in China and its optimized drainage system (ODS) with bottom drainage function. Six test groups with a total of 110 test conditions were designed to consider the design factors and environmental factors in engineering practice, including layout of the drainage system, blockage of the drainage system and groundwater level fluctuation. It was found that there are significant differences in the water discharge, EWP and invert stability for the tunnels with the two drainage systems. Even with a dense arrangement of the external blind tubes, TDS was still difficult to eliminate the excessive EWP below the invert, which is the main cause for the invert instability. Blockage of drainage system further increased the invert uplift and aggravated the track irregularity, especially when the blockage degree is more than 50%. However, ODS can prevent these invert anomalies by reasonably controlling the EWP at tunnel bottom. Even when the groundwater level reached 60 m and the blind tubes were fully blocked, the invert stability can still be maintained and the railway track experienced a settlement of only 1.8 mm. Meanwhile, the on-site monitoring under several rainstorms further showed that the average EWP of the invert was controlled within 84 kPa, while the maximum settlement of the track slab was only 0.92 mm, which also was in good agreement with the results of model test.  相似文献   
6.
A ring-on-ring (ROR) test is a prevailing test method for evaluating the equi-biaxial strength of glass materials. However, current ROR test standards limit the strength and size of glass to prevent a nonlinear behavior. In this study, the feasibility of ROR testing for non-standard, high-strength glass, such as tempered or ion-exchanged rectangular glass is investigated. To this end, ROR simulation based on theory and experiment is conducted for thirty non-standard glasses with widths of 100–300 mm and aspect ratios of 1.0–2.0. As a result, the maximum measurable stress was about 215.6 MPa for 100 × 200 mm glass and 481.3 MPa for 300 × 600 mm glass with a 3% deviation, which is well above the strength of regular tempered glass. The main purpose of this work is to understand the range of aspect ratio of horizontal and vertical widths of a glass plate that can be evaluated by the standard ROR test.  相似文献   
7.
Tracking control of oxygen excess ratio (OER) is crucial for dynamic performance and operating efficiency of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). OER tracking errors and overshoots under dynamic load limit the PEMFC output power performance, and also could lead oxygen starvation which seriously affect the life of PEMFC. To solve this problem, an adaptive sliding mode observer based near-optimal OER tracking control approach is proposed in this paper. According to real time load demand, a dynamic OER optimization strategy is designed to obtain an optimal OER. A nonlinear system model based near-optimal controller is designed to minimize the OER tracking error under variable operation condition of PEMFC. An adaptive sliding mode observer is utilized to estimate the uncertain parameters of the PEMFC air supply system and update parameters in near-optimal controller. The proposed control approach is implemented in OER tracking experiments based on air supply system of a 5 kW PEMFC test platform. The experiment results are analyzed and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed control approach under load changes, external disturbances and parameter uncertainties of PEFMC system.  相似文献   
8.
To evaluate the separate impacts on human health and establish effective control strategies, it is crucial to estimate the contribution of outdoor infiltration and indoor emission to indoor PM2.5 in buildings. This study used an algorithm to automatically estimate the long-term time-resolved indoor PM2.5 of outdoor and indoor origin in real apartments with natural ventilation. The inputs for the algorithm were only the time-resolved indoor/outdoor PM2.5 concentrations and occupants’ window actions, which were easily obtained from the low-cost sensors. This study first applied the algorithm in an apartment in Tianjin, China. The indoor/outdoor contribution to the gross indoor exposure and time-resolved infiltration factor were automatically estimated using the algorithm. The influence of outdoor PM2.5 data source and algorithm parameters on the estimated results was analyzed. The algorithm was then applied in four other apartments located in Chongqing, Shenyang, Xi'an, and Urumqi to further demonstrate its feasibility. The results provided indirect evidence, such as the plausible explanations for seasonal and spatial variation, to partially support the success of the algorithm used in real apartments. Through the analysis, this study also identified several further development directions to facilitate the practical applications of the algorithm, such as robust long-term outdoor PM2.5 monitoring using low-cost light-scattering sensors.  相似文献   
9.
周忠彬  高金霞  袁宝慧 《爆破器材》2022,51(5):20-23,30
针对压制成型的PBX炸药装药,选择CT无损检测、巴西实验和扫描电镜检测等技术,对比研究了室温和加热两种温度下压制成型的炸药装药内部质量、静态力学性能和细观破坏形式。结果表明,加热压制有利于改善炸药装药的内部质量,可避免产生初始损伤,且提高了装药的力学性能。细观尺度上,室温压制成型的装药主要发生界面脱黏破坏,加热压制成型装药的主要破坏形式是穿晶断裂。  相似文献   
10.
系统阐述了基准平面垂直断面法在爆破漏斗试验中测量爆破漏斗体积的基本原理,并将隧道激光断面仪应用于金厂河矿1 750 m水平15#采场底部切割巷道爆破漏斗试验爆破漏斗体积测量中。通过与传统体重法等计算法所得漏斗体积分析比较,结果表明基于隧道激光断面仪与3D Mine软件分析的基准平面垂直断面法实用性强、操作方便、结果直观可靠,达到试验预期目的。  相似文献   
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