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1.
Manufacturing companies not only strive to deliver flawless products but also monitor product failures in the field to identify potential quality issues. When product failures occur, quality engineers must identify the root cause to improve any affected product and process. This root-cause analysis can be supported by feature selection methods that identify relevant product attributes, such as manufacturing dates with an increased number of product failures. In this paper, we present different methods for feature selection and evaluate their ability to identify relevant product attributes in a root-cause analysis. First, we compile a list of feature selection methods. Then, we summarize the properties of product attributes in warranty case data and discuss these properties regarding the challenges they pose for machine learning algorithms. Next, we simulate datasets of warranty cases, which emulate these product properties. Finally, we compare the feature selection methods based on these simulated datasets. In the end, the univariate filter information gain is determined to be a suitable method for a wide range of applications. The comparison based on simulated data provides a more general result than other publications, which only focus on a single use case. Due to the generic nature of the simulated datasets, the results can be applied to various root-cause analysis processes in different quality management applications and provide a guideline for readers who wish to explore machine learning methods for their analysis of quality data.  相似文献   
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During whey powder production, the feed is subjected to several heat treatments which can cause lactosylation of proteins. In this study, lactosylation of whey proteins was evaluated in spray-dried powders before and after storage by varying the native protein fraction as well as the serum protein/lactose ratio in the powders. The lactosylation of native α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin in the powders before storage was not affected to a large extent by the protein denaturation or if the feed had been heat treated in a high or low lactose environment. After storage (relative humidity of 23.5%, 30 °C, 25 days), the kinetic of lactosylation tended to increase with increasing native protein fraction and bulk protein content in the powders. An explanation could be that proteins dissolved in the lactose glassy structure might have a lower reactivity, while proteins present in the protein glassy structure with dissolved lactose may display higher lactosylation reactivity.  相似文献   
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common liver disorder, affecting around 25% of the population worldwide. It is a complex disease spectrum, closely linked with other conditions such as obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, which may increase liver-related mortality. In light of this, numerous efforts have been carried out in recent years in order to clarify its pathogenesis and create new prevention strategies. Currently, the essential role of environmental pollutants in NAFLD development is recognized. Particularly, endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have a notable influence. EDCs can be classified as natural (phytoestrogens, genistein, and coumestrol) or synthetic, and the latter ones can be further subdivided into industrial (dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and alkylphenols), agricultural (pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides), residential (phthalates, polybrominated biphenyls, and bisphenol A), and pharmaceutical (parabens). Several experimental models have proposed a mechanism involving this group of substances with the disruption of hepatic metabolism, which promotes NAFLD. These include an imbalance between lipid influx/efflux in the liver, mitochondrial dysfunction, liver inflammation, and epigenetic reprogramming. It can be concluded that exposure to EDCs might play a crucial role in NAFLD initiation and evolution. However, further investigations supporting these effects in humans are required.  相似文献   
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Chronic stress is a combination of nonspecific adaptive reactions of the body to the influence of various adverse stress factors which disrupt its homeostasis, and it is also a corresponding state of the organism’s nervous system (or the body in general). We hypothesized that chronic stress may be one of the causes occurence of several molecular and cellular types of stress. We analyzed literary sources and considered most of these types of stress in our review article. We examined genes and mutations of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and also molecular variants which lead to various types of stress. The end result of chronic stress can be metabolic disturbance in humans and animals, leading to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, energy deficiency in cells (due to a decrease in ATP synthesis) and mitochondrial dysfunction. These changes can last for the lifetime and lead to severe pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis. The analysis of literature allowed us to conclude that under the influence of chronic stress, metabolism in the human body can be disrupted, mutations of the mitochondrial and nuclear genome and dysfunction of cells and their compartments can occur. As a result of these processes, oxidative, genotoxic, and cellular stress can occur. Therefore, chronic stress can be one of the causes forthe occurrence and development of neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis. In particular, chronic stress can play a large role in the occurrence and development of oxidative, genotoxic, and cellular types of stress.  相似文献   
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Landsiedel  Justus  Root  Waleri  Schramm  Christian  Menzel  Alexander  Witzleben  Steffen  Bechtold  Thomas  Pham  Tung 《Nano Research》2020,13(10):2658-2664
Nano Research - Development of colored surfaces by formation of nano-structured aggregates is a widely used strategy in nature to color lightweight structures (e.g. butterflies) without the use of...  相似文献   
10.
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small hemosiderin deposits indicative of prior cerebral microscopic hemorrhage and previously thought to be clinically silent. Recent population‐based cross‐sectional studies and prospective longitudinal cohort studies have revealed association between CMB and cognitive dysfunction. In the general population, CMBs are associated with age, hypertension, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population, diminished estimated glomerular filtration rate has been found to be an independent risk factor for CMB, raising the possibility that a uremic milieu may predispose to microbleeds. In the end‐stage renal disease (ESRD) population on hemodialysis, the incidence of microbleeds is significantly higher compared with a control group without history of CKD or stroke. We present an ESRD patient on chronic hemodialysis with a history of gradual cognitive decline and progressive CMBs. Through this case and literature review, we illustrate the need to develop detection and prediction models to treat this frequent development in ESRD patients.  相似文献   
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