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1.
Hepatic fibrosis occurs when liver tissue becomes scarred from repetitive liver injury and inflammatory responses; it can progress to cirrhosis and eventually to hepatocellular carcinoma. Previously, we reported that neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOs), produced by the hydrolysis of agar by β-agarases, have hepatoprotective effects against acetaminophen overdose-induced acute liver injury. However, the effect of NAOs on chronic liver injury, including hepatic fibrosis, has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we examined whether NAOs protect against fibrogenesis in vitro and in vivo. NAOs ameliorated PAI-1, α-SMA, CTGF and fibronectin protein expression and decreased mRNA levels of fibrogenic genes in TGF-β-treated LX-2 cells. Furthermore, downstream of TGF-β, the Smad signaling pathway was inhibited by NAOs in LX-2 cells. Treatment with NAOs diminished the severity of hepatic injury, as evidenced by reduction in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis mouse models. Moreover, NAOs markedly blocked histopathological changes and collagen accumulation, as shown by H&E and Sirius red staining, respectively. Finally, NAOs antagonized the CCl4-induced upregulation of the protein and mRNA levels of fibrogenic genes in the liver. In conclusion, our findings suggest that NAOs may be a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of chronic liver injury via inhibition of the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.  相似文献   
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High-temperature water electrolysis through solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) will play a key role in building a hydrogen economy in the future. However, the delamination between the air electrode and the electrolyte remains a critical issue to be addressed. Previously, it was hypothesized that Co migration may improve the catalytic activity of the SrZrO3 second phase at the LSCF-YSZ interface, eventually leading to the delamination. In this work, the LSCF-YSZ interfaces sintered at different temperatures were examined in detail. The activation behaviors of the LSCF electrodes upon application with electrolysis current were characterized under different conditions. Further, samples containing purposely added SrZrO3 interlayer with and without cobalt were fabricated and compared. The activation process is less significant for the sample with cobalt-added SrZrO3 interlayer than the sample with pure SrZrO3 layer, supporting the hypothesis that Co migration may lead to the activation behavior.  相似文献   
4.
The number of clinical trials evaluating adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and biomaterials efficacy in regenerative plastic surgery has exponentially increased during the last ten years. AD-MSCs are easily accessible from various fat depots and show intrinsic plasticity in giving rise to cell types involved in wound healing and angiogenesis. AD-MSCs have been used in the treatment of soft tissue defects and chronic wounds, employed in conjunction with a fat grafting technique or with dermal substitute scaffolds and platelet-rich plasma. In this systematic review, an overview of the current knowledge on this topic has been provided, based on existing studies and the authors’ experience. A multistep search of the PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, PreMEDLINE, Ebase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Clinicaltrials.gov, Scopus database, and Cochrane databases has been performed to identify papers on AD-MSCs, PRP, and biomaterials used in soft tissue defects and chronic wounds. Of the 2136 articles initially identified, 422 articles focusing on regenerative strategies in wound healing were selected and, consequently, only 278 articles apparently related to AD-MSC, PRP, and biomaterials were initially assessed for eligibility. Of these, 85 articles were excluded as pre-clinical, experimental, and in vitro studies. For the above-mentioned reasons, 193 articles were selected; of this amount, 121 letters, expert opinions, commentary, and editorials were removed. The remaining 72 articles, strictly regarding the use of AD-MSCs, PRP, and biomaterials in chronic skin wounds and soft tissue defects, were analyzed. The studies included had to match predetermined criteria according to the patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes, and study design (PICOS) approach. The information analyzed highlights the safety and efficacy of AD-MSCs, PRP, and biomaterials on soft tissue defects and chronic wounds, without major side effects.  相似文献   
5.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a barely treatable disease due to its profound chemoresistance. A distinct inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity reflected by specialized microenvironmental niches and different tumor cell subpopulations allows GBMs to evade therapy regimens. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop alternative treatment strategies. A promising candidate for the treatment of GBMs is AT101, the R(-) enantiomer of gossypol. The present study evaluates the effects of AT101, alone or in combination with temozolomide (TMZ), in a microenvironmental glioma stem cell niche model of two GBM cell lines (U251MG and U87MG). AT101 was found to induce strong cytotoxic effects on U251MG and U87MG stem-like cells in comparison to the respective native cells. Moreover, a higher sensitivity against treatment with AT101 was observed upon incubation of native cells with a stem-like cell-conditioned medium. This higher sensitivity was reflected by a specific inhibitory influence on the p-p42/44 signaling pathway. Further, the expression of CXCR7 and the interleukin-6 receptor was significantly regulated upon these stimulatory conditions. Since tumor stem-like cells are known to mediate the development of tumor recurrences and were observed to strongly respond to the AT101 treatment, this might represent a promising approach to prevent the development of GBM recurrences.  相似文献   
6.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main cell players in tissue repair and thanks to their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capabilities, they gained significant attention as cell source for tissue engineering (TE) approaches aimed at restoring bone and cartilage defects. Despite significant progress, their therapeutic application remains debated: the TE construct often fails to completely restore the biomechanical properties of the native tissue, leading to poor clinical outcomes in the long term. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) are currently used as a safe and non-invasive treatment to enhance bone healing and to provide joint protection. PEMFs enhance both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. Here, we provide extensive review of the signaling pathways modulated by PEMFs during MSCs osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. Particular attention has been given to the PEMF-mediated activation of the adenosine signaling and their regulation of the inflammatory response as key player in TE approaches. Overall, the application of PEMFs in tissue repair is foreseen: (1) in vitro: to improve the functional and mechanical properties of the engineered construct; (2) in vivo: (i) to favor graft integration, (ii) to control the local inflammatory response, and (iii) to foster tissue repair from both implanted and resident MSCs cells.  相似文献   
7.
Surface passivation treatment is a widely used strategy to resolve trap-mediated nonradiative recombination toward high-efficiency metal-halide perovskite photovoltaics. However, a lack of passivation with mixture treatment has been investigated, as well as an in-depth understanding of its passivation mechanism. Here, a systematic study on a mixed-salt passivation strategy of formamidinium bromide (FABr) coupled with different F-substituted alkyl lengths of ammonium iodide is demonstrated. It is obtained better device performance with decreasing chain length of the F-substituted alkyl ammonium iodide in the presence of FABr. Moreover, they unraveled a synergistic passivation mechanism of the mixed-salt treatment through surface reconstruction engineering, where FABr dominates the reformation of the perovskite surface via reacting with the excess PbI2. Meanwhile, ammonium iodide passivates the perovskite grain boundaries both on the surface and top perovskite bulk through penetration. This synergistic passivation engineer results in a high-quality perovskite surface with fewer defects and suppressed ion migration, leading to a champion efficiency of 23.5% with mixed-salt treatment. In addition, the introduction of the moisture resisted F-substituted groups presents a more hydrophobic perovskite surface, thus enabling the decorated devices with excellent long-term stability under a high humid atmosphere as well as operational conditions.  相似文献   
8.
KH550, KH560, CTAB, and F127 were adopted to modify silicon (Si) to improve the dispersity and stability of Si in the polyacrylonitrile/dimethyl sulfoxide (PAN/DMSO) polymer solutions. The influence of surfactants on rheological behaviors of PAN/DMSO/Si blending polymer solutions was investigated by an advanced solution and melt rotation rheometer. The homogeneity and stability were also studied. The results showed that the surfactants could change the viscosity dependence of blending polymer solutions on shear rate, temperature and storage time by increase the steric hindrance of Si. Among the four solutions, PAN/DMSO/Si blending polymer solution with F127 exhibited the lowest viscosity, activation energy and the smallest structural viscosity index and exhibited the trend close to the Newtonian fluids. Moreover, PAN/DMSO/Si blending polymer solution with F127 exhibited the best dispersity and stability, indicating its best physical properties and machinability.  相似文献   
9.
Direct allorecognition is the earliest and most potent immune response against a kidney allograft. Currently, it is thought that passenger donor professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are responsible. Further, many studies support that graft ischemia-reperfusion injury increases the probability of acute rejection. We evaluated the possible role of primary human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) in direct allorecognition by CD4+ T-cells and the effect of anoxia-reoxygenation. In cell culture, we detected that RPTECs express all the required molecules for CD4+ T-cell activation (HLA-DR, CD80, and ICAM-1). Anoxia-reoxygenation decreased HLA-DR and CD80 but increased ICAM-1. Following this, RPTECs were co-cultured with alloreactive CD4+ T-cells. In T-cells, zeta chain phosphorylation and c-Myc increased, indicating activation of T-cell receptor and co-stimulation signal transduction pathways, respectively. T-cell proliferation assessed with bromodeoxyuridine assay and with the marker Ki-67 increased. Previous culture of RPTECs under anoxia raised all the above parameters in T-cells. FOXP3 remained unaffected in all cases, signifying that proliferating T-cells were not differentiated towards a regulatory phenotype. Our results support that direct allorecognition may be mediated by RPTECs even in the absence of donor-derived professional APCs. Also, ischemia-reperfusion injury of the graft may enhance the above capacity of RPTECs, increasing the possibility of acute rejection.  相似文献   
10.
Recent research on mast cell biology has turned its focus on MRGPRX2, a new member of the Mas-related G protein-coupled subfamily of receptors (Mrgprs), originally described in nociceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia. MRGPRX2, a member of this group, is present not only in neurons but also in mast cells (MCs), specifically, and potentially in other cells of the immune system, such as basophils and eosinophils. As emerging new functions for this receptor are studied, a variety of both natural and pharmacologic ligands are being uncovered, linked to the ability to induce receptor-mediated MC activation and degranulation. The diversity of these ligands, characterized in their human, mice, or rat homologues, seems to match that of the receptor’s interactions. Natural ligands include host defense peptides, basic molecules, and key neuropeptides such as substance P and vasointestinal peptide (known for their role in the transmission of pain and itch) as well as eosinophil granule-derived proteins. Exogenous ligands include MC secretagogues such as compound 48/80 and mastoparan, a component of bee wasp venom, and several peptidergic drugs, among which are members of the quinolone family, neuromuscular blocking agents, morphine, and vancomycin. These discoveries shed light on its capacity as a multifaceted participant in naturally occurring responses within immunity and neural stimulus perception, as in responses at the center of immune pathology. In host defense, the mice Mrgprb2 has been proven to aid mast cells in the detection of peptidic molecules from bacteria and in the release of peptides with antimicrobial activities and other immune mediators. There are several potential actions described for it in tissue homeostasis and repair. In the realm of pathologic response, there is evidence to suggest that this receptor is also involved in chronic inflammation. Furthermore, MRGPRX2 has been linked to the pathophysiology of non-IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity drug reactions. Different studies have shown its possible role in other allergic diseases as well, such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, and chronic spontaneous urticaria. In this review, we sought to cover its function in physiologic processes and responses, as well as in allergic and nonallergic immune disease.  相似文献   
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