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1.
Electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction reaction (ENRR) offers a carbon-neutral process to fix nitrogen into ammonia, but its feasibility depends on the development of highly efficient electrocatalysts. Herein, we report that Fe ion grafted on MoO3 nanorods synthesized by an impregnation technique can efficiently enhance the electron harvesting ability and the selectivity of H+ during the NRR process in neutral electrolyte. In 0.1 M Na2SO4 solution, the electrocatalyst exhibited a remarkable NRR activity with an NH3 yield of 9.66 μg h?1 mg?1cat and a Faradaic efficiency (FE) of 13.1%, far outperforming the ungrafted MnO3. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the Fe sites are major activation centers along the alternating pathway.  相似文献   
2.
To satisfy arising energy needs and to handle the forthcoming worldwide climate transformation, the major research attention has been drawn to environmentally friendly, renewable and abundant energy resources. Hydrogen plays an ideal and significant role is such resources, due to its non-carbon based energy and production through clean energy. In this work, we have explored catalytic activity of a newly predicted haeckelite boron nitride quantum dot (haeck-BNQD), constructed from the infinite BN sheet, for its utilization in hydrogen production. Density functional theory calculations are employed to investigate geometry optimization, electronic and adsorption mechanism of haeck-BNQD using Gaussian16 package, employing the hybrid B3LYP and wB97XD functionals, along with 6–31G(d,p) basis set. A number of physical quantities such as HOMO/LUMO energies, density of states, hydrogen atom adsorption energies, Mulliken populations, Gibbs free energy, work functions, overpotentials, etc., have been computed and analysed in the context of the catalytic performance of haeck-BNQD for the hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER). Based on our calculations, we predict that the best catalytic performance will be obtained for H adsorption on top of the squares or the octagons of haeck-BNQD. We hope that our prediction of most active catalytic sites on haeck-BNQD for HER will be put to test in future experiments.  相似文献   
3.
本文主要总结了新冠疫情期间作者的电磁场理论课程在线教学经验。对比分析了录播和直播的优缺点后,选择录播教学方式。基于超星网络教学平台,展示了录播网络教学的具体措施,包括网上答疑和学习效果检查以及在线批改作业等。给出了网络教学可以为线下教学继续使用的方法和手段,为疫情结束后的正常教学提供了新的网络教学补充措施。  相似文献   
4.
In the present work, the bonding length, electronic structure, stability, and dehydrogenation properties of the Perovskite-type ZrNiH3 hydride, under different uniaxial/biaxial strains are investigated through ab-initio calculations based on the plane-wave pseudo-potential (PW-PP) approach. The findings reveal that the uniaxial/biaxial compressive and tensile strains are responsible for the structural deformation of the ZrNiH3 crystal structure, and its lattice deformation becomes more significant with decreasing or increasing the strain magnitude. Due to the strain energy contribution, the uniaxial/biaxial strain not only lowers the stability of ZrNiH3 but also decreases considerably the dehydrogenation enthalpy and decomposition temperature. Precisely, the formation enthalpy and decomposition temperature are reduced from ?67.73 kJ/mol.H2 and 521 K for non-strained ZrNiH3 up to ?33.73 kJ/mol.H2 and 259.5 K under maximal biaxial compression strain of ε = ?6%, and to ?50.99 kJ/mol.H2 and 392.23 K for the maximal biaxial tensile strain of ε = +6%. The same phenomenon has been also observed for the uniaxial strain, where the formation enthalpy and decomposition temperature are both decreased to ?39.36 kJ/mol.H2 and 302.78 K for a maximal uniaxial compressive strain of ε = - 12%, and to ?51.86 kJ/mol.H2 and 399 K under the maximal uniaxial tensile strain of ε = +12%. Moreover, the densities of states analysis suggests that the strain-induced variation in the dehydrogenation and structural properties of ZrNiH3 are strongly related to the Fermi level value of total densities of states. These ab-initio calculations demonstrate insightful novel approach into the development of Zr-based intermetallic hydrides for hydrogen storage practical applications.  相似文献   
5.
In this work, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to investigate the mechanism of carbon corrosion on nitrogen-doped carbon support. Free energy diagrams were generated based on three proposed reaction pathways to evaluate corrosion mechanisms. The most energetically preferred mechanism on nitrogen-doped carbon was determined. The results show that the step of water dissociation to form #OH was the rate-determining step for gra-G-1N (graphene doped with graphitic N) and pyrr-G-1N (graphene doped with pyrrolic N). As for graphene doped with pyridinic N, the step of C#OC#O formation was critical. It was found that the control of nitrogen concentration was necessary for precisely designing optimized carbon materials. Abundance of nitrogen moieties aggravated the carbon corrosion. When the high potential was applied, specific types of graphitic N and pyridinic N were found to be favorable carbon modifications to improve carbon corrosion resistance. Moreover, the solvent effect was also investigated. The results provide theoretical insights and design guidelines to improve corrosion resistance in carbon support through material modification by inhibiting the adsorption of surface oxides (OH, O, and OOH).  相似文献   
6.
Lithium (Li) metal, as an appealing candidate for the next-generation of high-energy-density batteries, is plagued by its safety issue mainly caused by uncontrolled dendrite growth and infinite volume expansion. Developing new materials that can improve the performance of Li-metal anode is one of the urgent tasks. Herein, a new MXene derivative containing pure rutile TiO2 and N-doped carbon prepared by heat-treating MXene under a mixing gas, exhibiting high chemical activity in molten Li, is reported. The lithiation MXene derivative with a hybrid of LiTiO2-Li3N-C and Li offers outstanding electrochemical properties. The symmetrical cell assembling lithiation MXene derivative hybrid anode exhibits an ultra-long cycle lifespan of 2000 h with an overpotential of ≈30 mV at 1 mA cm−2, which overwhelms Li-based anodes reported so far. Additionally, long-term operations of 34, 350, and 500 h at 10 mA cm−2 can be achieved in symmetrical cells at temperatures of −10, 25, and 50 °C, respectively. Both experimental tests and density functional theory calculations confirm that the LiTiO2-Li3N-C skeleton serves as a promising host for Li infusion by alleviating volume variation. Simultaneously, the superlithiophilic interphase of Li3N guides Li deposition along the LiTiO2-Li3N-C skeleton to avoid dendrite growth.  相似文献   
7.
Perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer membranes have been widely used as proton conducting membranes in various electrochemical processes such as polymer electrolyte fuel cells and water electrolysis. While their thermal stability has been studied by thermogravimetry and analysis of low molecular weight products, their decomposition mechanism is little understood. In this study a newly developed methodology of thermal desorption and pyrolysis in combination with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry is applied for Nafion membrane. An ambient ionization source and a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled unambiguous assignment of gaseous products. Thermal decomposition is initiated by side chain detachment above 350°C, which leaves carbonyls on the main chain at the locations of the side chains. Perfluoroalkanes are released above 400°C by main chain scission and their further decomposition products dominate above 500 °C. DFT calculation of reaction energies and barrier heights of model compounds support proposed decomposition reactions.  相似文献   
8.
With the emergence of distributed ledger technology (DLT), numerous practitioners and researchers have proclaimed its beneficial impact on supply chain transactions in the future. However, the vast majority of DLT initiatives are discontinued after a short period. With the full potential of DLT laying far down the road, especially managers in supply chain management (SCM) seek for short-term cost-saving effects of DLT in order to achieve long-term benefits of DLT in the future. However, the extant research has bypassed grounding long-term as well as short-term effects of DLT on supply chain transaction with empirical data. We address this shortcoming, following an abductive research approach and combining empirical data from a multiple case study design with the corresponding literature. Our study reveals that the effects of DLT on supply chain transactions are two-sided. We found six effects of DLT solutions that have a cost-reducing or cost avoidance impact on supply chain transactions. In addition, we found two effects that change the power distribution between buyers and suppliers in transactions and a single effect that reduces the dependency of supply chain transactions on third parties. While cost-reducing and avoidance as well as dependency-reducing effects are positive effects, the change in power distribution might come with disadvantages. With these findings, the paper provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of DLT on supply chain transactions, which will enable managers to improve their assessment of DLT usage in supply chains.  相似文献   
9.
ContextEnterprise software systems (e.g., enterprise resource planning software) are often deployed in different contexts (e.g., different organizations or different business units or branches of one organization). However, even though organizations, business units or branches have the same or similar business goals, they may differ in how they achieve these goals. Thus, many enterprise software systems are subject to variability and adapted depending on the context in which they are used.ObjectiveOur goal is to provide a snapshot of variability in large scale enterprise software systems. We aim at understanding the types of variability that occur in large industrial enterprise software systems. Furthermore, we aim at identifying how variability is handled in such systems.MethodWe performed an exploratory case study in two large software organizations, involving two large enterprise software systems. Data were collected through interviews and document analysis. Data were analyzed following a grounded theory approach.ResultsWe identified seven types of variability (e.g., functionality, infrastructure) and eight mechanisms to handle variability (e.g., add-ons, code switches).ConclusionsWe provide generic types for classifying variability in enterprise software systems, and reusable mechanisms for handling such variability. Some variability types and handling mechanisms for enterprise software systems found in the real world extend existing concepts and theories. Others confirm findings from previous research literature on variability in software in general and are therefore not specific to enterprise software systems. Our findings also offer a theoretical foundation for describing variability handling in practice. Future work needs to provide more evaluations of the theoretical foundations, and refine variability handling mechanisms into more detailed practices.  相似文献   
10.
As a symbol of sharing economy, ride-hailing services have spread to Asia, where various forms of services have been established according to the existing socio-technical regimes, including legal, policy, and environmental concerns. China, in particular, has accepted ride-hailing services by revising existing institutions. This study analyzes China’s acceptance of ride-hailing services in the socio-technical system context set up for legacy services. Simulation modeling, combined with transition theory and an agent-based model, is used to analyze the data. This study calculates consumer disutility based on mobility market share, reflecting consumer preference, and predicts the sustainability of ride-hailing services. The simulation results conclude that legalization and socio-technical context are of importance for sustainable mobility.  相似文献   
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