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1.
Polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) membranes prepared from poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) were modified by crossflow polymerization of aniline (ANI). The PEC membranes were used as separators in a two-compartment setup where ANI monomer and ammonium persulfate (APS) oxidant diffused through the membranes to form polyaniline (PANI). APS and ANI having different distributions throughout the membranes, the reaction led to the asymmetric polymerization of PANI on one face of each PEC membrane thus producing Janus membranes. Due to the excess PANI content, the membrane displayed distinct asymmetric electrical conductivities on each face. Interestingly, very different ANI polymerizations were obtained when nonstoichiometric PEC membranes having different molar ratio of cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes (P+:P? represents PDADMAC:PSS) were used and transport of APS was fastest through the 2:1 PEC when compared to the 1:2 PEC. In all experiments, the polymerization was most intense on the ANI side of the membranes. Also, the influence of NaCl both during PEC fabrication and during polymerization was studied and found to have some effect on the solute permeability. Results showed that a higher content of PANI was formed on PEC membranes having excess P+ and with no NaCl added during PEC fabrication. Although X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of PANI on both sides of each membrane, scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated that both sides of each membrane had different PANI content deposited. Electrical conductivity measurements using a four-point probe setup also showed that the PEC–PANI exhibits asymmetric electrical property on different sides. © 2021 Society of Industrial Chemistry.  相似文献   
2.
李鹏  王先科 《中州煤炭》2022,(9):276-278
为了方便煤炭的运输,某矿使用了矿用履带式搬运车。履带运输车解决了轮式运输车在恶劣道路条件下不能行走的问题,这种履带车是一种新型的运输工具,其特点是体积小、转弯灵活、动力强大,可在不受场地限制的情况下轻松通过狭窄的地方,能有效解决山区、土壤、陡坡等恶劣条件下物料的运输问题,适合普通运输车辆无法通行的地方。介绍了矿用履带式搬运车的主要结构以及工作原理,并给出了实际应用中应注意的事项。  相似文献   
3.
Intermetallic materials are bestowed by diverse ordered superlattice structures together with many unusual properties. In particular, the advent of chemically complex intermetallic alloys (CCIMAs) has received considerable attention in recent years and offers a new paradigm to develop novel metallic materials for advanced structural applications. These newly emerged CCIMAs exhibit synergistic modulations of structural and chemical features, such as self-assembled long-range close-packed ordering, complex sublattice occupancy, and interfacial disordered nanoscale layer, potentially allowing for superb physical and mechanical properties that are unmatched in conventional metallic materials. In this paper, we critically review the historical developments and recent advances in ordered intermetallic materials from the simple binary to chemically complex alloy systems. We are focused on the unique multicomponent superlattice microstructures, nanoscale grain-boundary segregation, and disordering, as well as the various extraordinary mechanical and functional properties of these newly developed CCIMAs. Finally, perspectives on the future research orientation, challenges, and opportunities of this new frontier are provided.  相似文献   
4.
Walnut flour (WF), a by-product of walnut oil production, is characterised by high polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, and fibre contents and presents suitability for bakery products. However, when using non-traditional ingredients, it is essential to evaluate the effect on the quality properties of the final product. So, this work aimed to assess the impact of WF on the technological, physicochemical, and sensory properties of gluten-free (GF) cakes. WF was added at a flour blend (cassava (CS) and maize (MS) starches and rice flour) at 0, 10%, 15%, and 20%. The results showed that WF modified starch gelatinisation, increased amylose–lipid complex (ALC) content, and made crumbs easier to chew. Besides, the total dietary fibre (TDF) and protein content significantly increased. Cakes with 15% WF presented the highest specific volume (SV) and no differences in overall acceptability with respect to control. Hence, WF is a suitable ingredient for gluten-free bakery products.  相似文献   
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Redox (reduction–oxidation) reactions control many important biological processes in all organisms, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This reaction is usually accomplished by canonical disulphide-based pathways involving a donor enzyme that reduces the oxidised cysteine residues of a target protein, resulting in the cleavage of its disulphide bonds. Focusing on human vitamin K epoxide reductase (hVKORC1) as a target and on four redoxins (protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase (ERp18), thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 1 (Tmx1) and thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 4 (Tmx4)) as the most probable reducers of VKORC1, a comparative in-silico analysis that concentrates on the similarity and divergence of redoxins in their sequence, secondary and tertiary structure, dynamics, intraprotein interactions and composition of the surface exposed to the target is provided. Similarly, hVKORC1 is analysed in its native state, where two pairs of cysteine residues are covalently linked, forming two disulphide bridges, as a target for Trx-fold proteins. Such analysis is used to derive the putative recognition/binding sites on each isolated protein, and PDI is suggested as the most probable hVKORC1 partner. By probing the alternative orientation of PDI with respect to hVKORC1, the functionally related noncovalent complex formed by hVKORC1 and PDI was found, which is proposed to be a first precursor to probe thiol–disulphide exchange reactions between PDI and hVKORC1.  相似文献   
7.
Cyclodextrins (CyDs) are water-soluble host molecules possessing a nanosized hydrophobic cavity. In the realm of molecular recognition, this cavity is used not only as a recognition site but also as a reaction medium, where a hydrophobic sensor recognizes a guest molecule. Based on the latter concept, we have designed a novel supramolecular sensing system composed of Zn(II)-dipicolylamine metal complex-based azobenzene (1-Zn) and 3A-amino-3A-deoxy-(2AS,3AS)-γ-cyclodextrin (3-NH2-γ-CyD) for sensing adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP). 1-Zn showed redshifts in the UV-Vis spectra and induced circular dichroism (ICD) only when both ATP and 3-NH2-γ-CyD were present. Calculations of equilibrium constants indicated that the amino group of 3-NH2-γ-CyD was involved in the formation of supramolecular 1-Zn/3-NH2-γ-CyD/ATP. The Job plot of the ICD spectral response revealed that the stoichiometry of 1-Zn/3-NH2-γ-CyD/ATP was 2:1:1. The pH effect was examined and 1-Zn/3-NH2-γ-CyD/ATP was most stable in the neutral condition. The NOESY spectrum suggested the localization of 1-Zn in the 3-NH2-γ-CyD cavity. Based on the obtained results, the metal coordination interaction of 1-Zn and the electrostatic interaction of 3-NH2-γ-CyD were found to take place for ATP recognition. The “reaction medium approach” enabled us to develop a supramolecular sensing system that undergoes multi-point interactions in water. This study is the first step in the design of a selective sensing system based on a good understanding of supramolecular structures.  相似文献   
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9.
在工程建设标准的制定和修订过程中,如何科学地确定编制顺序一直是困扰标准管理部门的难题,采用传统方式“按需制标”,具有盲目性、主观性,容易造成标准在制定和修订过程中的互相重复、滞后与矛盾。为了保证标准制定和修订工作的协调性,指导标准体系中各标准的制修订顺序,引入复杂网络拓扑结构,将同一标准类型下的标准构成功能团,根据相互之间的关系形成复杂网络,采用剥落算法对其网络节点重要性排序,进而确定标准制修订的优先度。通过对建筑给水排水工程规范标准修订的实证分析,总结工程建设标准的网络拓扑优先度评价的算法模型,实现制定和修订顺序的自动计算,从而更加科学地指导标准的制定和修订工作  相似文献   
10.
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