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A large-scale high-precision scan stage is important equipment in the industrial productions of micro-fabrication such as flat panel display (FPD) lithography systems. Designing controllers for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems is time-consuming and needs experience because of the interaction between each axis and many controller tuning parameters. The aim of this study is to develop a peak filter design method based on frequency response data to reduce repetitive disturbance. This data-based approach does not use the model and only uses the frequency response data of the controlled system and the disturbance spectrum calculated from the scanning error data (Contribution 1). The peak filter is designed by convex optimization and satisfies robust stability conditions for six-degree-of-freedom systems (Contribution 2). The control performance of the designed peak filter is experimentally demonstrated with an industrial MIMO large-scale high-precision scan stage in reducing the scanning error of the main stroke of the translation along the x-axis (Contribution 3).  相似文献   
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Two adaptive discretization frameworks are tested for computerized tomography (CT) data reconstruction. Removal of inactive pixels is primary motivation. Efficient and user independent entropy optimized masking is employed for spatial filtering purposes. Density of nodes at high gradient of reconstructed physical property is used as adaptation criterion. An alternative option, independent from noisy projection data and nature of the physical properties, is also discussed. Sensitivity analysis between the uniform and nonuniform (evolved via adaptive route) reconstruction grid reveals the utility of nonuniform grids. Iterative and transform based reconstruction techniques are used. Outcomes are tested successfully on three real world projection data from two different compact CT setups and one commercial high-resolution micro-CT scanner.  相似文献   
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This article presents a hands‐off control design for discrete‐time nonlinear system with a special type of nonlinear sector termed as “discrete‐time sector.” The design method to define the boundary of a discrete‐time sector is done with control‐Lyapunov function. The generalization of nonlinear system is viewed in the perspective of a comparison function. By means of a proposed sector, a switching control is designed such that no control action is experienced inside the sector thus, saving unnecessary control efforts. However, to study the robustness for discrete‐time system, a hands‐off control is modified to ensure the monotonic decrease in the energy of the system. Finally, the proposed approach is verified with the simulation results.  相似文献   
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In this paper, the design of all two-input logic gates is presented by only a single-stage single electron box (SEB) for the first time. All gates are constructed based on a same circuit. We have used unique periodic characteristics of SEB to design these gates and present all two-input logic gates (monotonic/non-monotonic, symmetric/non-symmetric) by a single-stage design. In conventional monotonic devices, such as MOSFETs, implementing non-monotonic logic gates such as XOR and XNOR is impossible by only a single-stage design, and a multistage design is required which leads to more complexity, higher power consumption and less speed of the gates. We present qualitative design at first and then detailed designs are investigated and optimised by using our previous works. All designs are verified by a single electron simulator which shows correct operation of the gates.  相似文献   
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Traditional box culvert designs lead to development of high velocity zones in the culvert barrel that often impede upstream migration of fish. Herein, three‐dimensional Reynolds‐averaged Navier‐Stokes (RANS)‐ and Large eddy simulation (LES)‐based computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) simulations were performed to compare the effectiveness of smooth, asymmetrically roughened, and corner‐baffled barrels, in creating low‐velocity zones (LVZs) and providing opportunity for upstream passage of small‐bodied fish. The results revealed distinctive benefits provided by the asymmetrically roughened and corner‐baffled barrels relative to the smooth barrel. Cross‐sectional asymmetry, corners, and obstructions are important factors that contribute to the generation of LVZs conducive to fish passage, albeit contiguity of LVZs is required, particularly for weak swimmers. The study demonstrates the adequacy and effectiveness of CFD models to complement traditional laboratory studies in understanding basic mechanisms beneficial to fish passage and to provide insights into future designs.  相似文献   
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Although topology optimization is established for linear static problems, more effort is required for solving nonlinear plastic problems. A new topology optimization approach with equivalent static loads (ESLs) is suggested to find the optimum topologies and locations of plastic hinges of thin-walled crash boxes by considering crash-induced deformation, the main crash energy-absorbing mechanism. Together with finite element method crashworthiness analyses, considering all nonlinearities with rate-dependent plasticity, the method was developed using an appropriate time-incremental scheme of ESLs without removing any high values of loads. Analyses show that the crash boxes with optimum topologies have energy-absorbing capabilities equivalent to the original structure. The proposed method is evaluated for two crashes: a crash box at low speed and a double cell subjected to high-speed collision. The results indicate that this method captures nonlinear crushing behaviours and accurate locations of plastic hinges where, if proper reinforcements are made, energy absorption can be enhanced.  相似文献   
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The present study concentrates on design, commissioning and calibration of a uniaxial laminar soil box suitable for use on a low base-shear capacity shake table available at IIT Kanpur, India. The box is designed to simulate the behavior of soil deposits subjected to earthquake motions, with minimal boundary effects due to reflection of waves at the boundary. The 1.1 m × 1.6 m × 0.765 m box is comprised of a series of individual lamina supported independently on multiple roller bearings guided through a guide channel. The outer frame connected to the guide rods is designed in such as way that it can transfer the self weight of each lamina out of the shake table. A series of free-field tests are carried out on dry Ganga sand sample to calibrate the box. Dynamic response parameters, such as acceleration, displacement, stress-strain behavior, strain-dependant modulus and damping ratio of the sand at various depth are investigated. Large strain and subsequent increased inelasticity is observed towards the top of the sand bed. The experimental results are further compared with equivalent-linear SHAKE analysis and nonlinear finite element ground response analysis of the free-field soil using OpenSees for assessing the performance of the laminar box.  相似文献   
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