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1.
Through a facile hydrothermal method, we have successfully prepared Ti3C2/Bi2.15WO6 (TC/BWO) composite, and systematically investigated their reactivity for the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) under visible light. X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis confirm the formation of heterostructure between Bi2.15WO6 and Ti3C2. The resultant 7TC/BWO composite exhibits enhanced photoactivity toward Cr(VI) reduction. After 120 min irradiation, the conversion of Cr(VI) reaches 92.5% with the quasi-first-order kinetic constant of k = 0.0145 min?1, which is higher than that of pure BWO (30% and k = 0.0005 min?1). The electrochemical and photoluminescent characterization confirm that the introduction of Ti3C2 is conducive to the separation of carriers, thus significantly improves the photocatalytic performance of TC/BWO. Furthermore, the radical capture experiments verify that the electrons are important for enhancing reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). As a result, this research provides a comprehensive understanding of the reduction of Cr(VI) by TC/BWO composite under visible light.  相似文献   
2.
Sealing performance between two contacting surfaces is of significant importance to stable operation of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. In this work, an analytical micro-scale approach is first established to predict the gas leakage in fuel cells. Gas pressure and uneven pressure distribution at the interface are also included in the model. At first, the micro tortuous leakage path at the interface is constructed by introducing contact modelling and fractal porous structure theory. In order to obtain the leakage at the entire surface, contact pressure distribution is predicted based on bonded elastic layer model. The gas leakage through the discontinuous interface can be obtained with consideration of convection and diffusion. Then, experiments are conducted to validate the numerical model, and good agreement is obtained between them. Finally, influences of surface topology, gasket compression and gasket width on leakage are studied based on the model. The results show that gas leakage would be greatly amplified when the asperity standard deviation of surface roughness exceeds 1.0 μm. Gaskets with larger width and smaller thickness are beneficial to sealing performance. The model is helpful to understand the gas leakage behavior at the interface and guide the gasket design of fuel cells.  相似文献   
3.
The fuel cell/battery durability and hybrid system stability are major considerations for the power management of fuel cell hybrid electric bus (FCHEB) operating on complicated driving conditions. In this paper, a real time nonlinear adaptive control (NAC) with stability analyze is formulated for power management of FCHEB. Firstly, the mathematical model of hybrid power system is analyzed, which is established for control-oriented design. Furthermore, the NAC-based strategy with quadratic Lyapunov function is set up to guarantee the stability of closed-loop power system, and the power split between fuel cell and battery is controlled with the durability consideration. Finally, two real-time power management strategies, state machine control (SMC) and fuzzy logic control (FLC), are implemented to evaluate the performance of NAC-based strategy, and the simulation results suggest that the guaranteed stability of NAC-based strategy can efficiently prolong fuel cell/battery lifespan and provide better fuel consumption economy for FCHEB.  相似文献   
4.
In this study, some locations with different climates, off-grid zero energy buildings with hydrogen energy storage systems are designed, and transient analysis is conducted. These considered buildings supply their electricity consumption without using the electrical grid and PV panels or wind turbines. Also, they supply thermal comfort to occupants by using a vapor compression chiller and humidifier. Domestic hot water of occupants is supplied using solar collectors. For analyzing building's performance and objectives achievement, TRNSYS software is used. Also, for evaluating occupant thermal comfort, the Fanger model is used. The considered building is a one-story building with a 150 m2 area. Four occupants are considered. Both of them are seated at rest, and another is seated with light working such as typing. Using the Fanger model equation and MATLAB software, the thermal comfort of occupants is determined. For domestic hot water consumption, verified profiles that vary during 24 h of the day are considered. Achieved results show that for humid and cold cities, PV panels with an area of 73 and 76 m2 can be supplied the required electricity of considered building with four occupants and battery state of charge is higher than 50% and 10%, respectively. Moreover, with a suitable air conditioner system, the predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD) can be lower than 12% and 8% for humid and cold cities. Therefore, the building can be converted to a zero-energy building using its rooftop area.  相似文献   
5.
Highly-efficient and stable non-noble metal electrocatalysts for overcoming the sluggish kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is urgent for water electrolysis. Biomass-derived biochar has been considered as promising carbon material because of its advantages such as low-cost, renewable, simple preparation, rich structure, and easy to obtain heteroatom by in-situ doping. Herein, Ni2P–Fe2P bimetallic phosphide spherical nanocages encapsulated in N/P-doped pine needles biochar is prepared via a simple two-step pyrolysis method. Benefiting from the maximum synergistic effects of bimetallic phosphide and biochar, high conductivity of biochar encapsulation, highly exposed active sites of Ni2P–Fe2P spherical nanocages, rapid mass transfer in porous channels with large specific surface area, and the promotion in adsorption of reaction intermediates by high-level heteroatom doping, the (Ni0.75Fe0.25)2P@NP/C demonstrates excellent OER activity with an overpotential of 250 mV and a Tafel slope of 48 mV/dec at 10 mA/cm2 in 1 M KOH. Also it exhibits a long-term durability in 10 h electrolysis and its activity even improves during the electrocatalytic process. The present work provides a favorable strategy for the inexpensive synthesis of biochar-based transition metal electrocatalysts toward OER, and improves the water electrolysis for hydrogen production.  相似文献   
6.
In the present paper, therapeutic treatment of infected tumorous cells has been studied through mathematical modeling and simulation of heat transfer in tissues by using a nonlinear dual-phase lag bioheat transfer model with Dirichlet boundary condition. The components of volumetric heat source in this model such as blood perfusion and metabolism are assumed experimentally validated temperature-dependent function, which gives more accurate temperature distribution in tissues through this model. We have used the finite difference and RK (4, 5) techniques of numerical methods to solve the proposed problem and obtained the exact solution in a particular case. After comparison, we got a good agreement between them. We have used dimensionless quantities throughout this paper. The effect of relaxation and thermalization time with respect to dimensionless temperature distribution has been analyzed in the treatment process.  相似文献   
7.
《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(4):3176-3191
Milk concentrates are used in the manufacturing of dairy products such as yogurt and cheese or are processed into milk powder. Processes for the nonthermal separation of water and valuable milk ingredients are becoming increasingly widespread at farm level. The technical barriers to using farm-manufactured milk concentrate in dairies are minimal, hence the suspicion that the practice of on-farm raw milk concentration is still fairly uncommon for economic reasons. This study, therefore, set out to investigate farmers' potential willingness to adopt a raw milk concentration plant. The empirical analysis was based on discrete choice experiments with 75 German dairy farmers to identify preferences and the possible adoption of on-farm raw milk concentration. The results showed that, in particular, farmers who deemed the current milk price to be insufficient viewed on-farm concentration using membrane technology as an option for diversifying their milk sales. We found no indication that adoption would be impeded by a lack of trustworthy information on milk processing technologies or capital.  相似文献   
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10.
《Soils and Foundations》2022,62(1):101103
The present study proposes a new elasto-plastic constitutive model that considers different types of hydrates in pore spaces. Many triaxial compression tests on both methane hydrate-bearing soils and carbon dioxide hydrate-bearing soils have been carried out over the last few decades. It has been revealed that methane hydrate-bearing soils and carbon dioxide hydrate-bearing soils have different strength and dilatancy properties even though they have the same hydrate contents. The reason for this might be due to the different types of hydrate morphology. In this study, therefore, the effect of the hydrate morphology on the mechanical response of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments is investigated through a model analysis by taking into account the different hardening rules corresponding to each type of hydrate morphology. In order to evaluate the capability of the proposed model, it is applied to the results of past triaxial compression tests on both methane hydrate-containing and carbon dioxide hydrate-containing sand specimens. The model is found to successfully reproduce the different stress–strain relations and dilatancy behaviors, by only giving consideration to the different morphology distributions and not changing the fitting parameters. The model is then used to predict a possible range in which the maximum deviator stress can move for various hydrate morphology ratios; the range is defined as the strength-band. The predicted curve of the maximum deviator stress obtained by the constitutive model matches the empirical equations obtained from past experiments. It supports the fact that the hydrate morphology ratio changes with the total hydrate saturation. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of the relation between the microscopic structures and macro-mechanical behaviors of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments.  相似文献   
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