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1.
Classical Fourier's theory is well-known in continuum physics and thermal sciences. However, the primary drawback of this law is that it contradicts the principle of causality. To explore the thermal relaxation time characteristic, Cattaneo–Christov's theory is adopted thermally. In this regard, the features of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convective flows of Casson fluids over an impermeable irregular sheet are revealed numerically. In addition, the resulting system of partial differential equations is altered via practical transformations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. An advanced numerical algorithm is developed in this respect to get higher approximations for temperature and velocity fields, as well as their corresponding wall gradients. For validating our numerical code, the current outcomes are compared with the available literature results. Moreover, it is revealed that the velocity field is more prominent in the suction flow situation as compared with the injection flow case. It is also found that the Casson fluid is hastened in the case of lower yield stress. Larger values of thermal relaxation parameters create a lessening trend in the temperature distribution and its related boundary layer breadth.  相似文献   
2.
An analysis has been carried out to examine the heat and mass transfer properties of a two-dimensional incompressible electrically conducting Maxwell fluid over a stretching sheet in the existence of Soret, Dufour, and nanoparticles. In many practical scenarios, such as the polymer extrusion process, the problem presented here is crucial. The flow is examined in terms of the impacts of magnetohydrodynamics and elasticity. Brownian motion and thermophoresis are incorporated into the transport equations. Using adequate similarity variables, the governing partial differential equations and related boundary conditions are non-dimensionalized. The fourth–fifth-order Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg procedure is utilized to solve the consequent transformed ordinary differential equations. The effects of various embedded thermo-physical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, concentration, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number have been determined and discussed quantitatively. A comparison of a special case of our results with the one previously reported in the literature shows a very good agreement. An increase in the values of Du and Sr leads to an increase in the temperature and concentration distribution. Nusselt number estimates decrease as Nb estimations increase. Furthermore, this study leads to the study of different flows of electrically conducting fluid over a stretching sheet problem that includes the two-dimensional nonlinear boundary equations.  相似文献   
3.
A high-throughput (105.5 g/h) passive four-stage asymmetric oscillating feedback microreactor using chaotic mixing mechanism was developed to prepare aggregated Barium sulfate (BaSO4) particles of high primary nanoparticle size uniformity. Three-dimensional unsteady simulations showed that chaotic mixing could be induced by three unique secondary flows (i.e., vortex, recirculation, and oscillation), and the fluid oscillation mechanism was examined in detail. Simulations and Villermaux–Dushman experiments indicate that almost complete mixing down to molecular level can be achieved and the prepared BaSO4 nanoparticles were with narrow primary particle size distribution (PSD) having geometric standard deviation, σg, less than 1.43 when the total volumetric flow rate Qtotal was larger than 10 ml/min. By selecting Qtotal and reactant concentrations, average primary particle size can be controlled from 23 to 109 nm as determined by microscopy. An average size of 26 nm with narrow primary PSD (σg = 1.22) could be achieved at Qtotal of 160 ml/min.  相似文献   
4.
曹辉林 《金属矿山》2022,51(2):231-236
针对赤泥等固体废弃物对环境危害性大且利用率低等问题,以碱激发赤泥-矿渣基地聚物注浆材料为 研究对象,研究了不同掺量的聚羧酸(PA)减水剂、醛酮缩合物(AKC)减水剂和萘系(N)减水剂对材料凝结时间、流动 性及强度等的影响,并通过 XRD、傅里叶红外光谱及 SEM 等设备对减水剂的作用机理进行研究。 结果表明:减水剂增 强了材料的流动性但降低了材料的剪切应力;N 和 PA 减水剂能缩短材料的凝结时间,但 AKC 减水剂会延长材料的凝 结时间;N 和 AKC 减水剂能提高材料的强度,但 PA 减水剂会降低材料的强度;N 减水剂对材料的综合性能提升效果 更加明显,其最优掺量为 0. 7%;减水剂对赤泥-矿渣基地聚物性能提升的作用机理主要是促进地聚合物凝胶的形成。 研究成果为拓展赤泥在工程上的使用途径和效率提供了理论指导。  相似文献   
5.
Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the real gas effects on shock/expansion fan interaction. Initial perfect gas simulations at low enthalpy capture the flow structures efficiently and outcomes are found to have excellent agreement with the analytical calculations. Furthermore, the simulations with the real gas solver for different enthalpies showed that the variation in enthalpy significantly changes the flow structures. It is observed that an increase in enthalpy leads to a decrease and increase in the postshock and postexpansion fan Mach numbers, respectively. Another important observation is the decrement in the peak pressure ratio with an increment in the enthalpy. These effects are noted to be more pronounced for Mars's environment due to the higher dependency of specific heat on temperature.  相似文献   
6.
The thermodynamics modeling of a Reiner–Philippoff-type fluid is essential because it is a complex fluid with three distinct probable modifications. This fluid model can be modified to describe a shear-thinning, Newtonian, or shear-thickening fluid under varied viscoelastic conditions. This study constructs a mathematical model that describes a boundary layer flow of a Reiner–Philippoff fluid with nonlinear radiative heat flux and temperature- and concentration-induced buoyancy force. The dynamical model follows the usual conservation laws and is reduced through a nonsimilar group of transformations. The resulting equations are solved using a spectral-based local linearization method, and the accuracy of the numerical results is validated through the grid dependence and convergence tests. Detailed analyses of the effects of specific thermophysical parameters are presented through tables and graphs. The study reveals, among other results, that the buoyancy force, solute and thermal expansion coefficients, and thermal radiation increase the overall wall drag, heat, and mass fluxes. Furthermore, the study shows that amplifying the space and temperature-dependent heat source parameters allows fluid particles to lose their cohesive force and, consequently, maximize flow and heat transfer.  相似文献   
7.
为研究既有线有砟轨道路基的翻浆冒泥机理,自主研发了一套能够模拟循环荷载–湿化耦合作用的模型试验系统。模型试样直径500 mm,由厚度分别为350 mm的路基土和200 mm的道砟组成,整个试样在高强度透明有机玻璃模型筒中制备完成。模型试验系统配备有监测荷载、位移、体积含水率和孔隙水压力的4种传感器,并通过高清相机对颗粒迁移过程进行图像捕捉。基于所研发的试验系统,针对辛泰铁路典型翻浆冒泥病害路段土样,开展翻浆冒泥模型试验。试验结果表明:动孔隙水压力是导致翻浆冒泥病害产生的关键因素。随着体积含水率的增加,动孔隙水压力引起的颗粒迁移量逐渐增加;在饱和状态下,会引起大量颗粒迁移,翻浆冒泥现象显著。试验结束时,道砟污染指数达到25%,在实际工程中已严重影响铁路的正常运营,有必要对污染道砟进行换填。  相似文献   
8.
Many attempts have been made to improve mass transfer by reducing the size of reactors. However, such reduction will fairly quickly reach practical limitations and numerous difficulties still remain. Catalytic washcoat shape and properties may be critical design factors, but the mechanisms for their effects on mass transfer characteristics are still not fully understood. To effectively eliminate problems associated with mass transport phenomena in microstructured steam-methanol reformers, the effects of washcoat shape and properties were investigated in various situations by performing computational fluid dynamics simulations. The dependence of the solution on mass transfer characteristics was reduced to a small number of dimensionless parameters. A dimensionless mass transfer analysis was carried out in terms of the Sherwood, Schmidt, and pore Reynolds numbers. The results indicated that the rate of mass transfer is predominantly controlled by washcoat properties, and porosity and effective thermal conductivity are fundamentally important. The rate of the reforming reaction is typically controlled by kinetics at a temperature of 480 K and limited by mass transfer at a temperature of 580 K. The shape of washcoats affects the overall mass transfer characteristics, depending on the structural and thermal properties of washcoats. The shape effect is limited by heat transfer. A three-fold increase in effectiveness factor can be achieved by increasing the effective thermal conductivity of the washcoat. Design recommendations were finally made to improve transport characteristics for the systems.  相似文献   
9.
Mixing by gas injection is an operation used in industrial processes such as wastewater treatment, metallurgy, or methanization in which pressurized gas is injected into a fluid in order to reduce concentrations and temperatures gradients. This study demonstrates how the CFD toolbox OpenFOAM can be used to simulate such flows. Experimental measurements and observations have been performed on a pilot-scale reactor where pressurized air is injected in a yield stress fluid. The volume of fluid method and an adaptive mesh with refinement at the interface have been used to track the gas inclusions. The numerical model accuracy has been assessed by comparing experimental and numerical results related to the bubble's frequency, dimensions, and rising velocities as well as the fluid recirculation, yielded, and unyielded regions in the tank. The influence of injection parameters such as the injection flow rate and the fluid rheological parameters has been quantified.  相似文献   
10.
The noninvasive sampling of dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) for the monitoring of clinical biomarkers is a greatly appealing area of research. The identification of molecular biomarkers in biological fluids has been accelerated with -omics analyses but remains limited in ISF because of its time-consuming and complex extraction process. Here, the generation of microneedle (MN) patches made of superabsorbent acrylate-based hydrogels for the rapid sampling of dermal ISF is described to explore its proteome. In depth, iterative optimization allows the identification of novel acrylate-based compositions with the required chemical, mechanical, and biocompatibility properties allowing proteomic analysis of the extracted ISF for the first time after sampling with swelling MNs. The generated MN arrays show no cytotoxic effect, successfully cross the stratum corneum, and can collect up to 6 µL of dermal ISF in 10 min in vivo. Proteomics lead to the detection of 176 clinically relevant biomarkers in the collected samples validating the use of ISF as a relevant bodily fluid for disease monitoring and diagnostic. Importantly, it is discovered that extraction fingerprint is strongly dependent on the MNs chemistry, and thus specific biomarkers could be selectively extracted by tuning the composition of the patch, making the system versatile and specific.  相似文献   
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