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1.
ABSTRACT

This paper focuses on controllability and observability of multi-agent systems with heterogeneous and switching topologies, where the first- and the second-order information interaction topologies are different and switching. First, based on the controllable state set, a controllability criterion is obtained in terms of the controllability matrix corresponding to the switching sequence. Next, by virtue of the subspace sequence, two necessary and sufficient algebraic conditions are established for controllability in terms of the system matrices corresponding to all the possible topologies. Furthermore, controllability is considered from the graphic perspective. It is proved that the system is controllable if the union graph of all the possible topologies is controllable. With respect to observability, two sufficient and necessary conditions are derived by taking advantage of the system matrices and the corresponding invariant subspace, respectively. Finally, some simulation examples are worked out to illustrate the theoretical results.  相似文献   
2.
为实现电力系统可观测性,提出一种新的相量测量单元(PMU)配置方法,即基于博弈论的演化算法。该算法将寻找PMU最优配置方案的问题映射为理性主体寻求自身利益最大化的博弈过程,PMU最优配置方案即对应于博弈中的纳什均衡解。其突出优点是演化方向确定、全局收敛性好、收敛速度快、解具有多样性。应用该算法在IEEE 30节点、新英格兰39节点、某128节点系统进行仿真计算,与深度优化算法、模拟退火算法和最小生成树算法的结果进行比较,说明了该算法的可行性及优势。  相似文献   
3.
大规模可再生能源的并网以及电力市场解除管制的改革,使传统集中式的节点电压在线安全分析、调度与控制方法面临困境。对此,在电网运行状况全景过程化可观测条件下,提出了渐进学习的电网节点聚合的新调控理论,通过电网"局部自治与集中调控互融"的调控方式解决电网的调控问题。提出了基于Q型因子学习的电网节点聚合规律的挖掘方法,根据传统节点电压方程及发电机、负荷的等值模型得到广域环境下节点电压向量与电势之间的解析关系,推导出连续2个量测时刻下节点电压幅值变化的影响因子,并对其进行过程化的Q型因子学习,进而得到电压幅值具有一致变化的节点聚合规律。通过对德州电网的仿真分析,验证了所提方法的准确性及有效性。  相似文献   
4.
A multi-objective optimal phasor measurement unit placement model using integer linear programming is presented in this article. The proposed model simultaneously optimizes two objectives, i.e., minimization of phasor measurement unit numbers and maximization of measurement redundancy. To calculate the redundancy criteria, the single-line outage and the phasor measurement unit loss are considered simultaneously. A linear formulation is presented for both objective functions. Also herein, to address conflicting attributes and identify Pareto optimal solutions of the multi-objective optimal phasor measurement unit placement problem, a new multi-objective mathematical programming method is proposed. Finally, a new index, i.e., minimum distance to utopia point, is implemented to select the most preferred solution among the available Pareto front based options on the goal to achieve judicious decision makers. Two test systems, i.e., a modified 9-bus and an IEEE 118-bus test systems, are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.  相似文献   
5.
Abstract—This article presents a non-linear programming-based model for the optimal placement of phasor measurement units. The optimal phasor measurement units placement is formulated to minimize the number of phasor measurement units required for full system observability and to maximize the measurement redundancy at all buses in a power system. A sequential quadratic programming algorithm is used for the solution of the proposed model. The existence of power flow and injection measurements, the limited phasor measurement units channel capacity, the lack of communication facilities in substations, and the single phasor measurement units loss are also incorporated into the initial proposed formulation. The non-linear programming model is applied to IEEE 14- and 118-bus test systems in MATLAB. The accuracy and the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by comparing the simulation results to those obtained by a binary integer programming model also implemented in MATLAB. The comparative study shows that the proposed non-linear programming model yields the same number of phasor measurement units as the binary integer programming model. A remarkable advantage of the non-linear programming against binary integer linear programming is its capability to give more than one optimal solution, each one having the same minimum number of phasor measurement units (same minimum objective value), but at different locations.  相似文献   
6.
针对火箭炮在射前准备阶段里只能进行两自由度的角运动,造成部分参数不可观的缺陷,在基于对火箭炮进行制导化改造的背景下,提出了在射前准备阶段加入横滚运动的标定方案以及相应的可观测度分析方法。首先建立了21 维误差模型;而后运用可观测度分析方法对误差参数的可观测度进行了分析,对三个阶段进行了比较,表明横滚运动可使多个参数变得可观,并且其他参数可观测度也大幅提升;最后,采用奇异值分解的方法对所提出的标定方案和可观测度分析方法进行仿真验证,结果表明:除x 轴陀螺刻度系数误差外,其余参数奇异值基本都大于1,与可观测度分析方法的结论一致,充分体现了横滚运动对误差参数估计的有效性以及可观测度分析方法的可行性。  相似文献   
7.
This paper presents binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) technique for the optimal allocation of phasor measurement units (PMUs) for the entire observability of connected power network. Phasor measurement units are considered as one of the most important measuring devices in the prospect of connected power network. PMUs function may be incorporated to the wide-area connected power networks for monitoring and controlling purposes. The optimal PMU placement (OPP) problem provides reference to the assurance of the minimal number of PMUs and their analogous locations for observability of the entire connected power networks. Binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) algorithm is developed for the solution of OPP problem. The efficacy and robustness of the proposed method has been tested on the IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 30-bus, New England 39-bus, IEEE 57-bus, IEEE 118-bus and Northern Regional Power Grid (NRPG) 246-bus test system. The results obtained by proposed approach are compared with other standard methods and it is observed that this BPSO based placement of phasor measurement units is found to be the best among all other techniques discussed.  相似文献   
8.
Shen Shou Max Chung 《Vacuum》2012,86(7):970-984
Electromagnetic wave interaction with a plasma covered metal surface has been studied using the Radar Cross Section (RCS) changes of a 10 cm diameter and 30 cm height metal cone with and without plasma coverage. A Finite-Difference-Time-Difference (FDTD) method was use to calculate the case of a cone with and without a covering of a 1 cm thick sheet plasma for both S Band (2,3, and 4 GHz) and X Band (8, 10, and 12 GHz) frequencies. The characteristic plasma frequency ωpe was set at 10 GHz, and electron-neutral collision frequency νen chosen to be 20 GHz. The results indicate that the metal cone has very small RCS at head-on direction, and a large RCS looking from the back end. A Plasma covered metal cone was shown to achieve head-on direction monostatic RCS changes between −0.47 and −7.2 dBm2 from 2 to 4 GHz, and −11 to −3.2 dBm2 RCS changes from 8 to 12 GHz, but at the back end the RCS increases between 2.2 and 2.6 dBm2 from 2 to 4 GHz, and varies between −0.9 and 0 dBm2 from 8 to 12 GHz. In the two frequency bands investigated, maximum RCS reduction of −15 dBm2 occurs at 8 GHz at the same direction as the incident electromagnetic wave polarization. Plasma stealth offers advantages like frequency tunability, but the challenge is establishing an adaptive feedback mechanism that can main a constant plasma density and thus a constant RCS by adjusting the power supplied to plasma generator while monitoring the changes in air speed, altitude, and humidity.  相似文献   
9.
A constructive criterion for decoupling the steady states of a linear, time-invariant multivariable system is developed. This criterion consists of a set of inequalities which, when satisfied, will cause the steady states to be decoupled. It turns out that pure integrators in the loops play an important role.  相似文献   
10.
A method is presented of synthesizing any voltage transfer function (without positive real axis zeros) using a voltage amplifier and a pair of RC grounded two-port networks.  相似文献   
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