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1.
High-purity mullite ceramics, promising engineering ceramics for high-temperature applications, were fabricated using transient liquid phase sintering to improve their high-temperature mechanical properties. Small amounts of ultrafine alumina or silica powders were uniformly mixed with the mullite precursor depending on the silica-alumina ratio of the resulting ceramics to allow for the formation of a transient liquid phase during sintering, thus, enhancing densification at the early stage of sintering and mullite formation by the reaction between additional alumina and the residual glassy phase (mullitization) at the final stage of sintering. The addition of alumina powder to the silica-rich mullite precursor resulted in a reaction between the glassy silica and alumina phases during sintering, thereby forming a mullite phase without inhibiting densification. The addition of fine silica powder to the mullite single-phase precursor led to densification with an abnormal grain growth of mullite, whereas some of the added silica remained as a glassy phase after sintering. The resulting mullite ceramics prepared using different powder compositions showed different sintering behaviors, depending on the amount of alumina added. Upon selecting an optimum process and the amount of alumina to be added, the pure mullite ceramics obtained via transient liquid phase sintering exhibited high density (approximately 99%) and excellent high-temperature flexural strength (approximately 320 MPa) at 1500 °C in air. These results clearly demonstrate that pure mullite ceramics fabricated via transient liquid phase sintering with compositions close to those of stoichiometric mullite could be a promising process for the fabrication of high-temperature structural ceramics used in an ambient atmosphere. The transient liquid phase sintering process proposed in this study could be a powerful processing tool that allows for the preparation of superior high-temperature structural ceramics used in the ambient processing atmosphere.  相似文献   
2.
In this study, the separation of hydrogen from gas mixtures using a palladium membrane coupled with a vacuum environment on the permeate side was studied experimentally. The gas mixtures composed of H2, N2, and CO2 were used as the feed. Hydrogen permeation fluxes were measured with membrane operating temperature in the range of 320–380 °C, pressures on the retentate side in the range of 2–5 atm, and vacuum pressures on the permeate side in the range of 15–51 kPa. The Taguchi method was used to design the operating conditions for the experiments based on an orthogonal array. Using the measured H2 permeation fluxes from the Taguchi approach, the stepwise regression analysis was also employed for establishing the prediction models of H2 permeation flux, followed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify the significance and suitability of operating conditions. Based on both the Taguchi approach and ANOVA, the H2 permeation flux was mostly affected by the gas mixture composition, followed by the retentate side pressure, the vacuum degree, and the membrane temperature. The predicted optimal operating conditions were the gas mixture with 75% H2 and 25% N2, the membrane temperature of 320 °C, the retentate side pressure of 5 atm, and the vacuum degree of 51 kPa. Under these conditions, the H2 permeation flux was 0.185 mol s?1 m?2. A second-order normalized regression model with a relative error of less than 7% was obtained based on the measured H2 permeation flux.  相似文献   
3.
Development of efficient, low cost and multifunctional electrocatalysts for water splitting to harvest hydrogen fuels is a challenging task, but the combination of carbon materials with transition metal-based compounds is providing a unique and attractive strategy. Herein, composite systems based on cobalt ferrite oxide-reduced graphene oxide (Co2FeO4) @(rGO) using simultaneous hydrothermal and chemical reduction methods have been prepared. The proposed study eliminates one step associated with the conversion of GO into rGO as it uses direct GO during the synthesis of cobalt ferrite oxide, consequently rGO based hybrid system is achieved in-situ significantly, the optimized Co2FeO4@rGO composite has revealed an outstanding multifunctional applications related to both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen counterpart (HER). Various metal oxidation states and oxygen vacancies at the surface of Co2FeO4@rGO composites guided the multifunctional surface properties. The optimized Co2FeO4@rGO composite presents excellent multifunctional properties with onset potential of 0.60 V for ORR, an overpotential of 240 mV at a 20 mAcm?2 for OER and 320 mV at a 10 mAcm?2 for HER respectively. Results revealed that these multifunctional properties of the optimized Co2FeO4@ rGO composite are associated with high electrical conductivity, high density of active sites, crystal defects, oxygen vacancies, and favorable electronic structure arisinng from the substitution of Fe for Co atoms in binary spinel oxide phase. These surface features synergistically uplifted the electrocatalytic properties of Co2FeO4@rGO composites. The multifunctional properties of the Co2FeO4@ rGO composite could be of high interest for its use in a wide range of applications in sustainable and renewable energy fields.  相似文献   
4.
Micro-cracks commonly occur on the catalyst layers (CLs) during the manufacturing of catalyst coated membranes (CCMs). However, the crack shape parameters effect on CLs in-plane (IP) electronic conductivity λs is not clear. In this work, the relationship between crack parameters and the λs is obtained based on the two-dimensional (2D) multiple-relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The LBM numerical model is validated by the normalized λs experiment applied on three different home-made cracked CLs, and the parameter study focus on crack width, length, quantity and phase angle are carried out. The results show that the decrease of λs has different sensitivity |k| to the parameters above. The crack width has little effect on λs decrease, and the |kw| is 0.038. However, crack arm length and quantity show more significant impact, which |kl| and |kN| are 0.753 and 0.725, respectively. The CLs with different crack propagation directions show significant anisotropy on λs, and a 53.53% decrease in λs is observed between 0° and 90° crack phase angle change. To manufacture a high electronic conductivity CL, crack initiation and migration mitigation are highly encouraged.  相似文献   
5.
燕麦为西藏自治区典型牧草之一,由于种植区地域辽阔,灌溉试验结果受限,西藏燕麦主要种植区的灌溉定额尚不明确。本文在西藏燕麦主要种植区内选取28个典型站点进行资料收集,遵循农业气候相似原则进行区域划分,基于水量平衡法揭示了西藏燕麦主要种植区灌溉定额的空间分布特征,并根据统计学原理分析了其影响因素。研究表明:燕麦主要种植区的灌溉定额呈由西藏中部至东部呈现先递增后递减的趋势,50%水文年下的燕麦灌溉定额在56~265 mm之间变化。降雨量是影响研究区内燕麦灌溉定额的主要因素(R2为0.515),ET0次之(R2为0.152);其它气象因素中,日照时数对研究区燕麦灌溉定额影响较大(R2为0.462),且呈正相关关系;相对湿度对燕麦灌溉定额影响较小。西藏燕麦主要种植区的灌溉定额及其空间分布可为西藏自治区灌溉用水管理提供支撑。  相似文献   
6.
We investigate synthesis, phase evolution, hollow and porous structure and magnetic properties of quasi-amorphous intermediate phase (QUAIPH) and hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanostructure synthesized by annealing of akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorods. It is found that the annealing temperature determines the phase composition of the products, the crystal structure/size dictates the magnetic properties whereas the final nanorod morphology is determined by the starting material. Annealing of β-FeOOH at ~300 °C resulted in the formation of hollow QUAIPH nanorods. The synthesized material shows low-cytotoxicity, superparamagnetism and good transverse relaxivity, which is rarely reported for QUAIPH. The QUAIPH nanorods started to transform to porous hematite nanostructures at ~350 °C and phase transformation was completed at 600 °C. During the annealing, the crystal structure changed from monoclinic (akaganeite) to quasi-amorphous and rhombohedral (hematite). Unusually, the crystallite size first decreased (akaganeite → QUAIPH) and then increased (QUAIPH → hematite) during annealing whereas the nanorods retained particle shape. The magnetic properties of the samples changed from antiferromagnetic (akaganeite) to superparamagnetic with blocking temperature TB = 84 K (QUAIPH) and finally to weak-ferromagnetic with the Morin transition at TM = 244 K and high coercivity HC = 1652 Oe (hematite). The low-cytotoxicity and MRI relaxivity (r2 = 5.80 mM?1 s?1 (akaganeite), r2 = 4.31 mM?1 s?1 (QUAIPH) and r2 = 5.17 mM?1 s?1 (hematite)) reveal potential for biomedical applications.  相似文献   
7.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(15):21483-21491
To battle the high open-circuit voltage deficit (VOC,def) in kesterite (Cu2ZnSnS4 or CZTS) solar cells, a current field of research relates to point defect engineering by cation substitution. For example, by partly replacing Cu with an element of a larger ionic radius, such as Ag, the degree of Cu/Zn disorder decreases, and likewise does the associated band tailing. In this paper, solution-processed (Ag1-xCux)2ZnSnS4 (ACZTS) samples are prepared through the aprotic molecular ink approach using DMSO as the solvent. The successful incorporation of silver into the CZTS lattice is demonstrated with relatively high silver concentrations, namely Ag/(Ag+Cu) ratios of 13% and 26%. The best device was made with 13% Ag/(Ag+Cu) and had an efficiency of 4.9%. The samples are compared to the pure CZTS sample in terms of microstructure, phase distribution, photoluminescence, and device performance. In the XRD patterns, a decrease in the lattice parameter c/a ratio is observed for ACZTS, as well as significant peak splitting with Ag addition for several of the characteristic kesterite XRD reflections. In addition to the improvement in efficiency, other advantageous effects of Ag-incorporation include enhanced grain growth and an increased band gap. A too high concentration of Ag leads to the formation of secondary phases such as SnS and Ag2S as detected by XRD.  相似文献   
8.
A appropriate size with three-dimension(3 D) channels for lithium diffusion plays an important role in constructing highperforming LiNi_(0.5)Mn_(1.5)O_4(LNMO) cathode materials, as it can not only reduce the transport path of lithium ions and electrons, but also reduce the side effects and withstand the structural strain in the process of repetitive Li~+ intercalation/deintercalation. In this work, an e fficient method for designing the hollow LNMO microsphere with 3 D channels structure by using polyethylene oxide(PEO) as soft template agent assisted solvothermal method is proposed. Experimental results indicate that PEO can make the reagents mingle evenly and nucleate slowly in the solvothermal process, thus obtaining a homogeneous distribution of carbonate precursors. In the final LNMO products, the hollow 3 D channels structure obtained by the decomposition of PEO and carbonate precursor in the calcination can provide abundant electroactive zones and electron/ion transport paths during the charge/discharge process, which benefits to improve the cycling performance and rate capability. The LNMO prepared by adding 1 g PEO possesses the most outstanding electrochemical performance, which presented an excellent discharge capacity of 143.1 mAh g~(-1) at 0.1 C and with a capacity retention of 92.2% after 100 cycles at 1 C. The superior performance attributed to the 3 D channels structure of hollow microspheres, which provide uninterrupted conductive systems and therefore achieve the stable transfer for electron/ion.  相似文献   
9.
To provide a basis for the high-temperature oxidation of ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs), the oxidation behavior of Zr3[Al(Si)]4C6 and a novel Zr3[Al(Si)]4C6-ZrB2-SiC composite at 1500 °C were investigated for the first time. From the calculation results, the oxidation kinetics of the two specimens follow the oxidation dynamic parabolic law. Zr3[Al(Si)]4C6 exhibited a thinner oxide scale and lower oxidation rate than those of the composite under the same conditions. The oxide scale of Zr3[Al(Si)]4C6 exhibited a two-layer structure, while that of the composite exhibited a three-layer structure. Owing to the volatilization of B2O3 and the active oxidation of SiC, a porous oxide layer formed in the oxide scale of the composite, resulting in the degradation of its oxidation performance. Furthermore, the cracks and defects in the oxide scale of the composite indicate that the reliability of the oxide scale was poor. The results support the service temperature of the obtained ceramics.  相似文献   
10.
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the manufacture of polyvinylchloride plastics and has been associated with concerns regarding male reproductive toxicity. In this study, we hypothesized that maternal exposure to DEHP induces transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset adverse reproductive outcomes through the male germline in the F1, F2, and F3 generations of male offspring. Pregnant rats were treated with 5 or 500 mg of DEHP/kg/day through gavage from gestation day 0 to birth. The offspring body weight, anogenital distance (AGD), anogenital index (AGI), sperm count, motility, and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) were measured for all generations. Methyl-CpG binding domain sequencing was performed to analyze sperm DNA methylation status in the F3. DEHP exposure at 500 mg/kg affected AGD, AGI, sperm count, mean DFI, and %DFI in the F1; AGD, sperm count, and mean DFI in the F2; and AGD, AGI, mean DFI, and %DFI in the F3. DEHP exposure at 5 mg/kg affected AGD, AGI, sperm count, and %DFI in the F1; sperm count in the F2; and AGD and AGI in F3. Compared with the control group, 15 and 45 differentially hypermethylated genes were identified in the groups administered 5 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg DEHP, respectively. Moreover, 130 and 6 differentially hypomethylated genes were observed in the groups administered 5 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg DEHP. Overall, these results demonstrated that prenatal exposure to DEHP caused transgenerational epigenetic effects, which may explain the observed phenotypic changes in the male reproductive system.  相似文献   
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