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1.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(8):10852-10861
Carbon cloth was used as a flexible substrate for bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) particles to provide flexibility and improve the overall thermoelectric performance. Bi2Te3 on carbon cloth (Bi2Te3/CC) was synthesized via a hydrothermal reaction with various reaction times. After over 12 h, the Bi2Te3 particles showed a clear hexagonal shape and were evenly adhered to the carbon cloth. Selenium (Se) atoms were doped into the Bi2Te3 structure to improve its thermoelectric performance. The electrical conductivity increased with increasing Se-dopant content until 40% Se was added. Moreover, the maximum power factor was 1300 μW/mK2 at 473 K for the 30% Se-doped sample. The carbon cloth substrate maintained its electrical resistivity and flexibility after 2000 bending cycles. A flexible thermoelectric generator (TEG) fabricated using the five pairs of 30% Se-doped sample showed an open-circuit voltage of 17.4 mV and maximum power output of 850 nW at temperature difference ΔT = 30 K. This work offers a promising approach for providing flexibility and improving the thermoelectric performance of inorganic thermoelectric materials for wearable device applications using flexible carbon cloth substrate for low temperature range application.  相似文献   
2.
On-site hydrogen production through steam-methane reforming (SMR) from city gas or natural gas is believed to be a cost-effective way for hydrogen-based infrastructure due to high cost of hydrogen transportation. In recent years, there have been a lot of on-site hydrogen fueling stations under design or construction in China. This study introduces current developments and technology prospects of skid-mounted SMR hydrogen generator. Also, technical solutions and economic analysis are discussed based on China's first on-site hydrogen fueling station project in Foshan. The cost of hydrogen product from skid-mounted SMR hydrogen generator is about 23 CNY/kg with 3.24 CNY/Nm3 natural gas. If hydrogen price is 60 CNY/kg, IRR of on-site hydrogen fueling station project reaches to 10.8%. While natural gas price fall to 2.3 CNY/Nm3, the hydrogen cost can be reduced to 18 CNY/kg, and IRR can be raised to 13.1%. The conclusion is that skid-mounted SMR technology has matured and is developing towards more compact and intelligent design, and will be a promising way for hydrogen fueling infrastructures in near future.  相似文献   
3.
This work investigates selective Ni locations over Ni/CeZrOx–Al2O3 catalysts at different Ni loading contents and their influences on reaction pathways in ethanol steam reforming (ESR). Depending on the Ni loading contents, the added Ni selectively interacts with CeZrOx–Al2O3, resulting in the stepwise locations of Ni over CeZrOx–Al2O3. This behavior induces a remarkable difference in hydrogen production and coke formation in ESR. The selective interaction between Ni and CeZrOx for 10-wt.% Ni generates more oxygen vacancies in the CeZrOx lattice. The Ni sites near the oxygen vacancies enhance reforming via steam activation, resulting in the highest hydrogen production rate of 1863.0 μmol/gcat·min. In contrast, for 15 and 20-wt.% Ni, excessive Ni is additionally deposited on Al2O3 after the saturation of Ni–CeZrOx interactions. These Ni sites on Al2O3 accelerate coking from the ethylene produced on the acidic sites, resulting in a high coke amount of 19.1 mgc/gcat·h (20Ni/CZ-Al).  相似文献   
4.
Hydrogen is currently receiving significant attention as an alternative energy resource, and among the various methods for producing hydrogen, methanol steam reforming (MSR) has attracted great attention because of its economy and practicality. Because the MSR reaction is inherently activated over catalytic materials, studies have focused on the development of noble metal-based catalysts and the improvement of existing catalysts with respect to performance and stability. However, less attention has been paid to the modification and development of innovative MSR reactors to improve their performance and efficiency. Therefore, in this review paper, we summarize the trends in the development of MSR reactor systems, including microreactors and membrane reactors, as well as the various structured catalyst materials appropriate for application in complex reactors. In addition, other engineering approaches to achieve highly efficient MSR reactors for the production of hydrogen are discussed.  相似文献   
5.
This paper proposes a method for the coordinated control of power factor by means of a multiagent approach. The proposed multiagent system consists of two types of agent: single feeder agent (F_AG) and bus agent (B_AG). In the proposed system, an F_AG plays as an important role, which decides the power factors of all distributed generators by executing the load flow calculations repeatedly. The voltage control strategies are implemented as the class definition of Java into the system. In order to verify the performance of the proposed method, it has been applied to a typical distribution model system. The simulation results show that the system is able to control very violent fluctuation of the demands and the photovoltaic (PV) generations.  相似文献   
6.
This paper presents the stability improvement results of hybrid doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based and permanent magnet generator (PMG)-based offshore wind farms (OWFs) using a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC). An adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller of the proposed SSSC is designed to render adequate damping characteristics to the studied system. A frequency-domain approach based on a linearized system model using eigenvalue technique analysis is performed. A time-domain scheme based on a nonlinear system model subject to a three-phase short circuit fault at infinite bus with variations in the signal transmission delays has also been investigated to compare the damping of the studied system in cases of with and without controller. The simulation results with MATLAB/SIMULINK toolbox have been presented. It can be concluded from the simulation results that the proposed SSSC joined with the designed ANFIS damping controller can offer adequate damping performance to the studied hybrid DFIG-based and PMG-based OWFs under severe disturbance.  相似文献   
7.
8.
Synthesis of nanocrystalline pristine and Mn-doped calcium copper titanate quadruple perovskites, CaCu3?xMnxTi4?xMnxO12 (x = 0, 0.5, and 1.0) by modified citrate solution combustion method has been reported. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns attest the phase purity of the perovskite materials. Average particle sizes of all the materials obtained from the Scherrer's formula are in the range of 55–70 nm. The specific surface areas for all the perovskites obtained from BET isotherms are found to be low as expected for the condensed oxide systems and fall in the range of 13–17 m2 g?1. Transmission electron microscopy studies show a reduction in particle size of CaCu3Ti4O12 with increase in Mn doping. Ca and Ti are present in +2 and +4 oxidation states in all the materials as demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. Cu2+ gets reduced in CaCu3Ti4O12 with higher Mn content. Mn is observed to be present only in +3 oxidation state. All the materials have been examined to be active in CO oxidation as well as H2 production from methanol steam reforming. CaCu3Ti4O12 with ~14 at.% Mn is found to show best catalytic activities among these materials. A comprehensive analysis of the catalytic activities of these perovskites toward CO oxidation and H2 production from MSR reveal the cooperative activity of copper-manganese in the doped perovskites and it is more effective at lower manganese content.  相似文献   
9.
Hierarchical-Beta zeolites have been hydrothermally synthesized by adding a new gemini organic surfactant. The used gemini surfactant play the role of a “pore-forming agents” on the mesoscale, on the same time, providing alkaline environment for the system. With this hierarchical Beta zeolite as the core support, we successfully prepared a shell layer of Ni-containing (22 wt%) petal-like core-shell-like catalyst and applied it to bioethanol steam reforming. At the reaction temperature of 350 °C–550 °C, the conversion rate of ethanol and the selectivity of hydrogen were always above 85% and 70%. After reaction of 100 h on stream at 400 °C, there were not obvious inactivation could be observed on NiNPs/OH-MBeta catalyst.  相似文献   
10.
A novel multichannel reactor with a bifurcation inlet manifold, a rectangular outlet manifold, and sixteen parallel minichannels with commercial CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for methanol steam reforming was numerically investigated in this paper. A three-dimensional numerical model was established to study the heat and mass transfer characteristics as well as the chemical reaction rates. The numerical model adopted the triple rate kinetic model of methanol steam reforming which can accurately calculate the consumption and generation of each species in the reactor. The effects of steam to carbon molar ratio, weight hourly space velocity, operating temperature and catalyst layer thickness on the methanol steam reforming performance were evaluated and discussed. The distributions of temperature, velocity, species concentration, and reaction rates in the reactor were obtained and analyzed to explain the mechanisms of different effects. It is suggested that the operating temperature of 548 K, steam to carbon ratio of 1.3, and weight hourly space velocity of 0.67 h−1 are recommended operating conditions for methanol steam reforming by the novel multichannel reactor with catalyst fully packed in the parallel minichannels.  相似文献   
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