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1.
A high-throughput (105.5 g/h) passive four-stage asymmetric oscillating feedback microreactor using chaotic mixing mechanism was developed to prepare aggregated Barium sulfate (BaSO4) particles of high primary nanoparticle size uniformity. Three-dimensional unsteady simulations showed that chaotic mixing could be induced by three unique secondary flows (i.e., vortex, recirculation, and oscillation), and the fluid oscillation mechanism was examined in detail. Simulations and Villermaux–Dushman experiments indicate that almost complete mixing down to molecular level can be achieved and the prepared BaSO4 nanoparticles were with narrow primary particle size distribution (PSD) having geometric standard deviation, σg, less than 1.43 when the total volumetric flow rate Qtotal was larger than 10 ml/min. By selecting Qtotal and reactant concentrations, average primary particle size can be controlled from 23 to 109 nm as determined by microscopy. An average size of 26 nm with narrow primary PSD (σg = 1.22) could be achieved at Qtotal of 160 ml/min.  相似文献   
2.
甫沙4井位于塔里木盆地塔西南坳陷昆仑山前冲断带的柯东构造带上,北部和东部分别发育有柯克亚和柯东1井油气田。为研究甫沙4井原油来源与充注过程,对原油样品和连续抽提后的含油砂样各组分(游离态、束缚态、包裹体)进行GC、GC?MS和 GC?IRMS分析,与柯克亚凝析油气田油样进行油—油对比。结果表明:甫沙4井晚期充注原油组分具有C29?32重排藿烷、重排甾烷和Ts相对含量高,C27?29甾烷ααα 20R分布呈反“L”型,以及正构烷烃单体碳同位素值较低等特征,与柯克亚凝析油气田来源于二叠系普司格组(P2?3p)烃源岩的主体原油(I类)地球化学特征一致。而早期充注的原油组分具有重排藿烷、重排甾烷和Ts相对含量较低,C27?29甾烷ααα 20R分布呈“V”型,以及正构烷烃单体碳同位素值较高等特征,与柯克亚凝析油气田来源于中—下侏罗统湖相泥岩的II类原油地球化学特征一致。甫沙4井经历3个阶段成藏过程:①在上新世,二叠系烃源岩于生油晚期阶段生成的I类原油运移至柯克亚构造带或柯东构造带深部形成油藏;②在更新世早期,侏罗系烃源岩于生油早—中期生成的II类原油运移至甫沙4井白垩系储层;③在第四纪,强烈的构造作用使深部I类原油沿断裂调整进入甫沙4井白垩系储层。最终造成甫沙4井白垩系储层II类原油先充注,I类原油后充注的特殊现象。  相似文献   
3.
The study of steels which guarantee safety and reliability throughout their service life in hydrogen-rich environments has increased considerably in recent years. Their mechanical behavior in terms of hydrogen embrittlement is of utmost importance. This work aims to assess the effects of hydrogen on the tensile properties of quenched and tempered 42CrMo4 steels. Tensile tests were performed on smooth and notched specimens under different conditions: pre-charged in high pressure hydrogen gas, electrochemically pre-charged, and in-situ hydrogen charged in an acid aqueous medium. The influence of the charging methodology on the corresponding embrittlement indexes was assessed. The role of other test variables, such as the applied current density, the electrolyte composition, and the displacement rate was also studied. An important reduction of the strength was detected when notched specimens were subjected to in-situ charging. When the same tests were performed on smooth tensile specimens, the deformation results were reduced. This behavior is related to significant changes in the operative failure micromechanisms, from ductile (microvoids coalescence) in absence of hydrogen or under low hydrogen contents, to brittle (decohesion of martensite lath interfaces) under the most stringent conditions.  相似文献   
4.
5.
Conjugated polymers have emerged as a promising class of organic photocatalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water splitting due to their adjustable chemical structures and electronic properties. However, developing highly efficient organic polymer photocatalysts with high photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution remains a significant challenge. Herein, we present an efficient approach to enhance the photocatalytic performance of linear conjugated polymers by modifying the surface chemistry via introducing a hydrophilic adenine group into the side chain. The adenine unit with five nitrogen atoms could enhance the interaction between the surface of polymer photocatalyst and water molecules through the formation of hydrogen bonding, which improves the hydrophilicity and dispersity of the resulting polymer photocatalyst in the photocatalytic reaction solution. In addition, the strong electron-donating ability of adenine group with plentiful nitrogen atoms could promote the separation of light-induced electrons and holes. As a result, the adenine-functionalized conjugated polymer PF6A-DBTO2 shows a high photocatalytic activity with a hydrogen evolution rate (HER) of 25.21 mmol g?1 h?1 under UV-Vis light irradiation, which is much higher than that of its counterpart polymer PF6-DBTO2 without the adenine group (6.53 mmol g?1 h?1). More importantly, PF6A-DBTO2 without addition of a Pt co-catalyst also exhibits an impressive HER of 21.93 mmol g?1 h?1 under visible light (λ > 420 nm). This work highlights that it is an efficient strategy to improve the photocatalytic activity of conjugated polymer photocatalysts by the modification of surface chemistry.  相似文献   
6.
Solar steam generation has attracted considerable interest due to its easy accessibility and sustainability. However, dye molecules were gradually concentrated on bulk water or the surface of solar absorbers during the disposal of dye wastewater. Herein, LaB6/g-C3N4 composites were immobilized on porous cotton cloth, served as a solar absorber resistant to dye clogging. The optimal solar absorber possessed solar harvesting of 92.3% and showed great application potential in the field of the treatment of dye wastewater. This study presented a new approach for the treatment of dye wastewater.  相似文献   
7.
CD4+ T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses through their capacity to recruit and provide help to multiple immune effectors, in addition to exerting direct effector functions. CD4+ T cells are increasingly recognized as playing an essential role in the control of chronic viral infections. In this review, we present recent advances in understanding the nature of CD4+ T cell help provided to antiviral effectors. Drawing from our studies of natural human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) control, we then focus on the role of high-affinity T cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes in mediating antiviral CD4+ T cell responses. Last, we discuss the role of TCR affinity in determining CD4+ T cell differentiation, reviewing the at times divergent studies associating TCR signal strength to the choice of a T helper 1 (Th1) or a T follicular helper (Tfh) cell fate.  相似文献   
8.
The development of small molecules that can selectively target G-quadruplex (G4) DNAs has drawn considerable attention due to their unique physiological and pathological functions. However, only a few molecules have been found to selectively bind a particular G4 DNA structure. We have developed a fluorescence ligand Q1 , a molecular scaffold with a carbazole–pyridine core bridged by a phenylboronic acid side chain, that acts as a selective ascaris telomere antiparallel G4 DNA ASC20 ligand with about 18 nm blue-shifted and enhanced fluorescence intensity. Photophysical properties revealed that Q1 was sensitive to the microenvironment and gave the best selectivity to ASC20 with an equilibrium binding constant Ka=6.04×105 M−1. Time-resolved fluorescence studies also demonstrated that Q1 showed a longer fluorescence lifetime in the presence of ASC20. The binding characteristics of Q1 with ASC20 were shown in detail in a fluorescent intercalator displacement (FID) assay, a 2-Ap titration experiment and by molecular docking. Ligand Q1 could adopt an appropriate pose at terminal G-quartets of ASC20 through multiple interactions including π–π stacking between aromatic rings; this led to strong fluorescence enhancement. In addition, a co-staining image showed that Q1 is mainly distributed in the cytoplasm. Accordingly, this work provides insights for the development of ligands that selectively targeting a specific G4 DNA structure.  相似文献   
9.
Direct allorecognition is the earliest and most potent immune response against a kidney allograft. Currently, it is thought that passenger donor professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are responsible. Further, many studies support that graft ischemia-reperfusion injury increases the probability of acute rejection. We evaluated the possible role of primary human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) in direct allorecognition by CD4+ T-cells and the effect of anoxia-reoxygenation. In cell culture, we detected that RPTECs express all the required molecules for CD4+ T-cell activation (HLA-DR, CD80, and ICAM-1). Anoxia-reoxygenation decreased HLA-DR and CD80 but increased ICAM-1. Following this, RPTECs were co-cultured with alloreactive CD4+ T-cells. In T-cells, zeta chain phosphorylation and c-Myc increased, indicating activation of T-cell receptor and co-stimulation signal transduction pathways, respectively. T-cell proliferation assessed with bromodeoxyuridine assay and with the marker Ki-67 increased. Previous culture of RPTECs under anoxia raised all the above parameters in T-cells. FOXP3 remained unaffected in all cases, signifying that proliferating T-cells were not differentiated towards a regulatory phenotype. Our results support that direct allorecognition may be mediated by RPTECs even in the absence of donor-derived professional APCs. Also, ischemia-reperfusion injury of the graft may enhance the above capacity of RPTECs, increasing the possibility of acute rejection.  相似文献   
10.
B4C-TiB2 ceramics (TiB2 ranging 5~70 vol%) with Mo-Co-WC as the sintering additive were prepared by spark plasma sintering. In comparison with B4C-TiB2 without additive, the enhanced densification was evident in the sintered specimen with Mo-Co-WC additive. Core-rim structured grain was observed around TiB2 grains. The interface of the rim between TiB2 and B4C phases demonstrated different feature: the inner borderline of the rim exhibited a smooth feature, whereas a sharp curved grain boundary was observed between the rim and the B4C grain. The formation mechanism is discussed: the epitaxial growth of (Ti,Mo,W)B2 rim around the TiB2 core may occur as a result of the solid solution and dissolution-precipitation between TiB2 phase and the sintering additive. It was revealed that the fracture toughness increased as the content of TiB2 content increased, alongside the decreased hardness. B4C-30 vol% TiB2 specimen demonstrated the optimal combination of mechanical properties, reaching Vickers hardness of 24.3 GPa and fracture toughness of 3.33 MPa·m1/2.  相似文献   
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