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The exploitation of recycled carbonaceous catalysts from renewable biomass resources such as chitin is a crucial issue for the development of the sustainable society. In this article, the chitin-based N and O doped carbon microspheres (ChC) were fabricated by a simple dissolution, sol–gel transformation, and the carbonization methods. Subsequently, the novel magnetic Ag-Fe3O4@chitin-based carbon microspheres catalyst (MChC) was successfully constructed through the in situ redox reaction. The as-prepared MChC possessed rich micropores with high-surface area, and a narrow size distribution (50–120 μm). The Ag-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were immobilized through the interaction with C, N, and O atoms in the pores of MChC. The reduction of 4-nitrophenol was applied to evaluate the catalytic activity of MChC. 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) could be fully reduced to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) in 5 min with the catalyst MChC-45. Moreover, MChC could be collected in solution with an external magnet in 8 s and remained relatively high-catalytic activity after 10 cycle times. This work provided novel ideas for the fabrication of doped carbon material from biomass and promoted its utilization in nanocatalytic applications.  相似文献   
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Engineering novel Sn-based bimetallic materials could provide intriguing catalytic properties to boost the electrochemical CO2 reduction. Herein, the first synthesis of homogeneous Sn1−xBix alloy nanoparticles (x up to 0.20) with native Bi-doped amorphous SnOx shells for efficient CO2 reduction is reported. The Bi-SnOx nanoshells boost the production of formate with high Faradaic efficiencies (>90%) over a wide potential window (−0.67 to −0.92 V vs RHE) with low overpotentials, outperforming current tin oxide catalysts. The state-of-the-art Bi-SnOx nanoshells derived from Sn0.80Bi0.20 alloy nanoparticles exhibit a great partial current density of 74.6 mA cm−2 and high Faradaic efficiency of 95.8%. The detailed electrocatalytic analyses and corresponding density functional theory calculations simultaneously reveal that the incorporation of Bi atoms into Sn species facilitates formate production by suppressing the formation of H2 and CO.  相似文献   
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Lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) are considered a promising next-generation energy storage device owing to their high theoretical energy density. However, their overall performance is limited by several critical issues such as lithium polysulfide (PS) shuttles, low sulfur utilization, and unstable Li metal anodes. Despite recent huge progress, the electrolyte/sulfur ratio (E/S) used is usually very high (≥20 µL mg−1), which greatly reduces the practical energy density of devices. To push forward LSBs from the lab to the industry, considerable attention is devoted to reducing E/S while ensuring the electrochemical performance. To date, however, few reviews have comprehensively elucidated the possible strategies to achieve that purpose. In this review, recent advances in low E/S cathodes and anodes based on the issues resulting from low E/S and the corresponding solutions are summarized. These will be beneficial for a systematic understanding of the rational design ideas and research trends of low E/S LSBs. In particular, three strategies are proposed for cathodes: preventing PS formation/aggregation to avoid inadequate dissolution, designing multifunctional macroporous networks to address incomplete infiltration, and utilizing an imprison strategy to relieve the adsorption dependence on specific surface area. Finally, the challenges and future prospects for low E/S LSBs are discussed.  相似文献   
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Neutrophils readily infiltrate infection foci, phagocytose and usually destroy microbes. In tuberculosis (TB), a chronic pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), neutrophils harbor bacilli, are abundant in tissue lesions, and their abundances in blood correlate with poor disease outcomes in patients. The biology of these innate immune cells in TB is complex. Neutrophils have been assigned host-beneficial as well as deleterious roles. The short lifespan of neutrophils purified from blood poses challenges to cell biology studies, leaving intracellular biological processes and the precise consequences of Mtb–neutrophil interactions ill-defined. The phenotypic heterogeneity of neutrophils, and their propensity to engage in cellular cross-talk and to exert various functions during homeostasis and disease, have recently been reported, and such observations are newly emerging in TB. Here, we review the interactions of neutrophils with Mtb, including subcellular events and cell fate upon infection, and summarize the cross-talks between neutrophils and lung-residing and -recruited cells. We highlight the roles of neutrophils in TB pathophysiology, discussing recent findings from distinct models of pulmonary TB, and emphasize technical advances that could facilitate the discovery of novel neutrophil-related disease mechanisms and enrich our knowledge of TB pathogenesis.  相似文献   
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This article theoretically and empirically analyzes backtesting portfolio value-at-risk (VaR) with estimation risk in an intrinsically multi-variate framework. It particularly takes into account the estimation of portfolio weights in forecasting portfolio VaR and its impact on backtesting. It shows that the estimation risk from estimating portfolio weights and that from estimating the multi-variate dynamic model make the existing methods in a univariate framework inapplicable. It proposes a general theory to quantify estimation risk applicable to the present problem and suggests practitioners a simple but effective way to implement valid inference to overcome the effect of estimation risk in backtesting portfolio VaR. In particular, we apply our theory to the efficient mean-variance-skewness portfolio for a multi-variate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model with multi-variate general hyperbolic distributed innovations. Some Monte Carlo simulations and an empirical application demonstrate the merits of our method.  相似文献   
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Rapid and sensitive point-of-care testing (POCT) is an extremely critical mission in practical applications, especially for rigorous military medicine, home health care, and in the third world. Here, we report a visual POCT method for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection based on Taylor rising in the corner of quadratic geometries between two rod surfaces. We discuss the principle of Taylor rising, demonstrating that it is significantly influenced by contact angle, surface tension, and density of the sample, which are controlled by ATP-dependent rolling circle amplification (RCA). In the presence of ATP, RCA reaction effectively suppresses Taylor-rising behavior, due to the increased contact angle, density, and decreased surface tension. Without addition of ATP, untriggered RCA reaction is favorable for Taylor rising, resulting in a significant height. With this proposed method, visual sensitive detection of ATP without the aid of other instruments is realized with only a 5 μL droplet, which has good selectivity and a low detection limit (17 nM). Importantly, this visual method provides a promising POCT tool for user-friendly molecular diagnostics.  相似文献   
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