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1.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a barely treatable disease due to its profound chemoresistance. A distinct inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity reflected by specialized microenvironmental niches and different tumor cell subpopulations allows GBMs to evade therapy regimens. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop alternative treatment strategies. A promising candidate for the treatment of GBMs is AT101, the R(-) enantiomer of gossypol. The present study evaluates the effects of AT101, alone or in combination with temozolomide (TMZ), in a microenvironmental glioma stem cell niche model of two GBM cell lines (U251MG and U87MG). AT101 was found to induce strong cytotoxic effects on U251MG and U87MG stem-like cells in comparison to the respective native cells. Moreover, a higher sensitivity against treatment with AT101 was observed upon incubation of native cells with a stem-like cell-conditioned medium. This higher sensitivity was reflected by a specific inhibitory influence on the p-p42/44 signaling pathway. Further, the expression of CXCR7 and the interleukin-6 receptor was significantly regulated upon these stimulatory conditions. Since tumor stem-like cells are known to mediate the development of tumor recurrences and were observed to strongly respond to the AT101 treatment, this might represent a promising approach to prevent the development of GBM recurrences.  相似文献   
2.
Cell surface and secreted proteins provide essential functions for multicellular life. They enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen co-translationally, where they mature and fold into their complex three-dimensional structures. The ER is populated with a host of molecular chaperones, associated co-factors, and enzymes that assist and stabilize folded states. Together, they ensure that nascent proteins mature properly or, if this process fails, target them for degradation. BiP, the ER HSP70 chaperone, interacts with unfolded client proteins in a nucleotide-dependent manner, which is tightly regulated by eight DnaJ-type proteins and two nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs), SIL1 and GRP170. Loss of SIL1′s function is the leading cause of Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS), an autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder. The development of animal models has provided insights into SIL1′s functions and MSS-associated pathologies. This review provides an in-depth update on the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying SIL1′s NEF activity and its role in maintaining ER homeostasis and normal physiology. A precise understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with the loss of SIL1 may allow for the development of new pharmacological approaches to treat MSS.  相似文献   
3.
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) type 2 is caused by heterozygous inactivating mutations in the gene encoding glucokinase (GCK), a pivotal enzyme for glucose homeostasis. In the pancreas GCK regulates insulin secretion, while in the liver it promotes glucose utilization and storage. We showed that silencing the Drosophila GCK orthologs Hex-A and Hex-C results in a MODY-2-like hyperglycemia. Targeted knock-down revealed that Hex-A is expressed in insulin producing cells (IPCs) whereas Hex-C is specifically expressed in the fat body. We showed that Hex-A is essential for insulin secretion and it is required for Hex-C expression. Reduced levels of either Hex-A or Hex-C resulted in chromosome aberrations (CABs), together with an increased production of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This result suggests that CABs, in GCK depleted cells, are likely due to hyperglycemia, which produces oxidative stress through AGE metabolism. In agreement with this hypothesis, treating GCK-depleted larvae with the antioxidant vitamin B6 rescued CABs, whereas the treatment with a B6 inhibitor enhanced genomic instability. Although MODY-2 rarely produces complications, our data revealed the possibility that MODY-2 impacts genome integrity.  相似文献   
4.
中国石化海南炼油化工有限公司0.2 Mt/a C5/C6烷烃异构化装置以连续重整装置的拔头油为原料,使用NNI-1催化剂,采用一次通过流程,不设脱异戊烷塔和稳定塔,经设在连续重整装置内的脱丁烷塔稳定处理后作为汽油调合组分。该装置于2006年9月开工投产,截至2015年3月已连续运行3个周期。长周期运行分析结果表明:前两个周期中NNI-1催化剂具有较高的异构化活性及选择性,C5异构化率为60%左右,C6异构化率为80%左右,C6选择性为15%左右,产品辛烷值基本达到技术指标要求(RON≥78);而在第三周期运行中,催化剂积炭增加等原因导致其异构化活性及选择性降低,异构化产品辛烷值提升能力呈现逐步衰减的趋势,提高反应苛刻度已不能弥补催化剂活性下降造成的产品辛烷值降低。为保证装置长周期运行,建议择机停工对催化剂进行再生,或是直接换用与装置原料性质匹配的异构化催化剂。  相似文献   
5.
Thermally conductive polymers offer new possibilities for the heat dissipation in electric and electronic components, for example, by a three‐dimensional shaping of the heat sinks. To face safety regulations, improved fire performance of those components is required. In contrast to unfilled polymers, those materials exhibit an entirely different thermal behavior. To investigate the flammability, a phosphorus flame retardant was incorporated into thermally conductive composites of polyamide 6 and hexagonal boron nitride. The flame retardant decreased the thermal conductivity only slightly. However, the burning behavior changed significantly, due to a different heat propagation, which was investigated using a thermographic camera. An optimum content of hexagonal boron nitride for a sufficient thermal conductivity and fire performance was found between 20 and 30 vol%. The improvement of the fire performance was due to a faster heat release out of the pyrolysis zone and an earlier decomposition of the flame retardant. For higher contents of hexagonal boron nitride, the heat was spread faster within the part, promoting an earlier ignition and increasing the decomposition rate of the flame retardant.  相似文献   
6.
Nitrile rubber (NBR) blends with excellent performance have always been a hot research topic in petroleum field. Due to the excellent performance and compatibility of polyamide 6 (PA6), it provides an opportunity for the preparation of high-performance NBR/PA6 blends. In this article, NBR/PA6 blends were prepared by the three-step molding process. Experimentally, it was found that PA6 has a prominent reinforcement effect in NBR matrix. The variation of this mechanical property was investigated from different aspects of the crystal structure, crystallinities, phase morphology, and so on. It can be cleared that the formation of fibrous structure of PA6 phase is the main factor for reinforcement of the polymer blends. Meanwhile, the formation mechanism of the special phase structure induced by the three-step process is deeply expounded and its structural evolution schematic is established. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019 , 136, 47472.  相似文献   
7.
基于“IPv6+”的智能IP网络方案   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
随着第4次工业革命的到来,人类社会正逐步迈向万物互联的智能时代。智能时代需要更加自动化、智能化的IP网络,基于“IPv6+”的SRv6、BIERv6等技术是使能新一代IP网络的关键基础。全面阐述了“IPv6+”的技术内涵,结合华为在智能 IP 网络解决方案上的创新和思考,介绍了“IPv6+”在极简连接、SLA 保障、专网体验、质量感知和云网一体等多个解决方案场景的关键技术与典型应用,助力5G与云业务发展。  相似文献   
8.
人体大脑和身体的发育,需要从食物中摄取均衡的营养物质。人类大脑是区分人类和其他动物的特征。食物中的必需脂肪酸是机体组织结构和功能的必要组成部分。Omega-6(O6)亚油酸(LA6)是皮肤组织的组成成分,且是炎症、血栓形成、免疫和其他信号分子的前体;Omega-3(O3)α-亚麻酸(ALA3),特别是其长链代谢产物——二十二碳六烯酸(DHA3),是大脑、视网膜和部分神经组织中的关键组分。从富含LA6脂肪酸(缺乏O3脂肪酸)的植物籽中提取出的廉价而优质油脂,是20世纪的西方国家食品工业生产的主要脂肪来源。在代谢通路中,高浓度的LA6脂肪酸可拮抗O3脂肪酸代谢,造成O3脂肪酸不足,因此,在给怀孕动物的饲料中,只提供富含LA6但缺乏O3脂肪酸的油脂作为唯一的脂肪来源,会导致幼崽大脑发育不良。过去20~30年的研究表明,低含量LA6且含DHA3的油脂可改善大脑的功能。近年来的研究较多集中在营养因素对大脑发育的影响,最新研究数据表明,脂肪酸平衡对营养不良儿童的大脑发育尤为重要。世界卫生组织(WHO)越来越重视大脑的营养健康,通过其下属的食品法典委员会,建议用于治疗严重急性营养不良儿童的即食治疗食品中,使用含有均衡脂肪酸组成/构成的脂肪。同样,脂肪酸均衡对老年人可能也很重要。目前,业界已经有了调整油脂成分的方法,以确保脂肪酸均衡,从而维持人体整个生命周期的大脑健康。  相似文献   
9.
When UF6 is handled in leak tight system, the amount of uranium compound formed on the surface of containers, valves, and others in UF6 handling facilities is not so significant for a short term that special attention has not been given to this problem. The present work was done to throw some more light on this problem based on the recent experiment. We discuss the possibility that the intermolecular transfer of a fluorine atom from UF6 to UF5 may participate in the formation of uranium compound. The discussion includes also the unique features contained in the experimental result, the reaction processes assumed in this problem, and the derivation of a rate equation for expressing the deposition of uranium compound. Furthermore, we propose a new method for determining nonlinear parameters included in a governing differential equation having two variables for expressing the deposition of uranium compound from experimental raw data.  相似文献   
10.
Siglecs are members of the immunoglobulin gene family containing sialic acid binding N-terminal domains. Among them, Siglec-8 is expressed on various cell types of the immune system such as eosinophils, mast cells and weakly on basophils. Cross-linking of Siglec-8 with monoclonal antibodies triggers apoptosis in eosinophils and inhibits degranulation of mast cells, making Siglec-8 a promising target for the treatment of eosinophil- and mast cell-associated diseases such as asthma. The tetrasaccharide 6’-sulfo-sialyl Lewisx has been identified as a specific Siglec-8 ligand in glycan array screening. Here, we describe an extended study enlightening the pharmacophores of 6’-sulfo-sialyl Lewisx and the successful development of a high-affinity mimetic. Retaining the neuraminic acid core, the introduction of a carbocyclic mimetic of the Gal moiety and a sulfonamide substituent in the 9-position gave a 20-fold improved binding affinity. Finally, the residence time, which usually is the Achilles tendon of carbohydrate/lectin interactions, could be improved.  相似文献   
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