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1.
Equilibrium swelling and rheological tests were adopted to systematically investigate the effects of softener type and dosage on the crosslink densities. The results turned out that the chemical crosslink density could be distinguished from the physical crosslink density by comparing the results of equilibrium swelling and rheological tests. The liquid butadiene (LB) as a softener leads to the greatest reduction in crosslink density, followed by polyethylene wax (PW) and paraffinic oil (PO). The tensile strength decreases with increasing PO content while shows peak values with increase of LB and PW contents. The dependencies of chemical crosslink density on the aging time under 150°C are quite different for the three softeners, which can be expected from the double crosslinking networks consisting of small softener and large main crosslinking networks. Further investigation has been performed to correlate the tensile strength with chemical crosslink density of ethylene propylene diene monomer elastomer vulcanizates. Three different linear relationships can be obtained for the softeners independent of the aging time. It can now be expected from this study that the role of some new softeners in rubber compounds is not only confined to plasticization but also forms crosslinking networks in the peroxide-cured rubbers.  相似文献   
2.
Selenium-modified nucleosides are powerful tools to study the structure and function of nucleic acids and their protein interactions. The widespread application of 2-selenopyrimidine nucleosides is currently limited by low yields in established synthetic routes. Herein, we describe the optimization of the synthesis of 2-Se-uridine and 2-Se-thymidine derivatives by thermostable nucleoside phosphorylases in transglycosylation reactions using natural uridine or thymidine as sugar donors. Reactions were performed at 60 or 80 °C and at pH 9 under hypoxic conditions to improve the solubility and stability of the 2-Se-nucleobases in aqueous media. To optimize the conversion, the reaction equilibria in analytical transglycosylation reactions were studied. The equilibrium constants of phosphorolysis of the 2-Se-pyrimidines were between 5 and 10, and therefore differ by an order of magnitude from the equilibrium constants of any other known case. Hence, the thermodynamic properties of the target nucleosides are inherently unfavorable, and this complicates their synthesis significantly. A tenfold excess of sugar donor was needed to achieve 40−48 % conversion to the target nucleoside. Scale-up of the optimized conditions provided four Se-containing nucleosides in 6–40 % isolated yield, which compares favorably to established chemical routes.  相似文献   
3.
刘风 《计算机应用》2019,39(5):1534-1539
现有毒品滥用流行病模型假设吸毒者康复后对毒品拥有永久"免疫"力,而忽视了其再次成为毒品易感者的可能性。针对这一问题,通过考虑社区治疗和隔离治疗两种措施,分析了毒品滥用人群的演化过程,提出了基于暂时"免疫"力的毒品滥用流行病模型,并计算了模型的基本再生数,讨论了模型平衡点的存在性和稳定性。当基本再生数小于1时,模型存在一个局部渐进稳定的无毒平衡点;当基本再生数大于1时,模型存在唯一的地方病平衡点,并利用几何方法证明了地方病平衡点的全局稳定性;当基本再生数等于1时,如果满足一定条件,模型出现后向分支现象。数值模拟验证了上述所有结果。研究结果表明提高隔离治疗率、改善社区治疗效果和降低接触传染率可以有效抑制毒品滥用的流行。  相似文献   
4.
A number of worms, named P2P (peer-to-peer) passive worms, have recently surfaced, which propagate in P2P file-sharing networks and have posed heavy threats to these networks. In contrast to the majority of Internet worms, it is by exploiting users’ legitimate activities instead of vulnerabilities of networks in which P2P passive worms propagate. This feature evidently slows down their propagation, which results in them not attracting an adequate amount of attention in literature. Meanwhile, this feature visibly increases the difficulty of detecting them, which makes it very possible for them to become epidemic. In this paper, we propose an analytical model for P2P passive worm propagation by adopting epidemiological approaches so as to identify their behaviors and predict the tendency of their propagation accurately. Compared with a few existing models, dynamic characteristics of P2P networks are taken into account. Based on this proposed model, the sufficient condition for the global stability of the worm free equilibrium is derived by applying epidemiological theories. Large scale simulation experiments have validated both the proposed model and the condition.  相似文献   
5.
With increasing consumption of natural gas (NG), small NG reservoirs, such as coalbed methane and oil field associated gas, have recently drawn significant attention. Owing to their special characteristics (e.g., scattered distribution and small output), small-scale NG liquefiers are highly required. Similarly, the mixed refrigerant cycle (MRC) is suitable for small-scale liquefaction systems due to its moderate complexity and power consumption. In consideration of the above, this paper reviews the development of mobile miniature NG liquefiers in Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (TIPC), China. To effectively liquefy the scattered NG and overcome the drawbacks of existing technologies, three main improvements, i.e., low-pressure MRC process driven by oil-lubricated screw compressor, compact cold box with the new designed heat exchangers, and standardized equipment manufacturing and integrated process technology have been made. The development pattern of “rapid cluster application and flexible liquefaction center” has been eventually proposed. The small-scale NG liquefier developed by TIPC has reached a minimum liquefaction power consumption of about 0.35 kW·h/Nm3. It is suitable to exploit small remote gas reserves which can also be used in boil-off gas reliquefaction and distributed peak-shaving of pipe networks.  相似文献   
6.
含动力学抑制剂的天然气水合物相平衡研究对新型低剂量抑制剂的开发具有指导作用。在283.6 ~ 290.9 K和7.51 MPa ~ 15.97 MPa的温压范围内研究了抑制剂Inhibex501及其溶剂2-乙二醇单丁醚对甲烷水合物相平衡条件的影响。实验结果显示,0.5wt%和2.0wt%浓度的Inhibex501对甲烷水合物形成的热力学条件具有促进作用,能使甲烷水合物形成移向更高的温度或者更低的压力,而2-乙二醇单丁醚在浓度0.2wt% ~ 1.0wt%范围几乎不改变甲烷水合物形成的热力学条件,N-乙烯基己内酰胺与N-乙烯基吡咯烷酮的共聚物对水合物形成热力学条件的改变起主要作用。  相似文献   
7.
In this paper, we study scheduling games under mixed coordination mechanisms on hierarchical machines. The two scheduling policies involved are ‐ and ‐, where ‐ (resp., ‐) policy sequences jobs in nondecreasing order of their hierarchies, and jobs of the same hierarchy in nonincreasing (resp., nondecreasing) order of their processing times. We first show the existence of a Nash equilibrium. Then we present the price of anarchy and the price of stability for the games with social costs of minimizing the makespan and maximizing the minimum machine load. All the bounds given in this paper are tight.  相似文献   
8.
塔里木油田水碳酸盐平衡系数与有机酸的意义   总被引:3,自引:2,他引:1  
李伟  刘宝珺  闵磊 《石油学报》2003,24(5):32-35
根据统计学规律,对塔里木盆地油田水进行了研究,阐明了该盆地油田水的碳酸盐平衡系数(简称为RC)与有机酸的基本特征。从油田水的无机组分与有机组分的统计分析中发现了油田水的碳酸盐平衡系数与有机酸存在明显的负相关性,进一步论证了碳酸盐平衡系数和有机酸与油气聚集及油气性质的关系。碳酸盐平衡系数越低及低碳有机酸的含量越高,它们与油藏,尤其是与 轻质油或气藏的关系越密切。从两者的关系中初步了解到有机酸的溶蚀作用对油气藏中储层次生孔隙的形成应有较重要的影响。  相似文献   
9.
甲基叔戊基醚合成反应的热力学分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
利用戊烯与甲醇合成甲基叔戊基醚(TAME)反应的热力学平衡实验数据, 选择不同的混合活度模型,分别计算得到了该反应体系的平衡常数,并与理论计算得到的平衡常数相比较,筛选出了适合该反应体系的活度计算模型.  相似文献   
10.
本文提出一个同温冶炼过程中预测非金属夹杂物沉淀的计算机程序。本研究中,多元硅酸盐溶体的Gibbs自由能由基于统计热力学的晶胞模型来计算,该晶胞模型按照氧与周围的阳离子构成的对称和非对称晶胞来描述硅酸盐熔体结构,假定高温冶炼时认与非金属夹杂物平衡,钢液中氧化物元素的活度由Wagner交互作用系数来计算,利用本程序可以估计炼钢时沉淀的非金属氧化物的成分,为调整冶炼工艺和提高产品质量提供指导,进一步可计  相似文献   
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