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Since the late 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has been spread all around the world. The pandemic is a critical challenge to the health and safety of the general public, the medical staff and the medical systems worldwide. It has been globally proposed to utilise robots during the pandemic, to improve the treatment of patients and leverage the load of the medical system. However, there is still a lack of detailed and systematic review of the robotic research for the pandemic, from the technologies’ perspective. Thus a thorough literature survey is conducted in this research and more than 280 publications have been reviewed, with the focus on robotics during the pandemic. The main contribution of this literature survey is to answer two research questions, i.e. 1) what the main research contributions are to combat the pandemic from the robotic technologies’ perspective, and 2) what the promising supporting technologies are needed during and after the pandemic to help and guide future robotics research. The current achievements of robotic technologies are reviewed and discussed in different categories, followed by the identification of the representative work’s technology readiness level. The future research trends and essential technologies are then highlighted, including artificial intelligence, 5 G, big data, wireless sensor network, and human-robot collaboration.  相似文献   
3.
It is time to locate connectionist representation theory in the new wave of robotics research. The utility of representations developed in artificial neural networks (ANNs) during learning has been demonstrated in cognitive science research since the 1980s. The research reported here puts learned representations to work in a decentered control task, the disembodied arm problem, in which a mobile robot operates an arm fixed to a table to pick up objects. There is no physical linkage between the arm and the robot and so the robot's point of view must be decentered. This is done by developing a modular Artificial Neural Net system in three stages: (i) a classifier net is trained with laser scan data to output transformationally invariant position classes; (ii) an arm net is trained for picking up objects; (iii) an inter net is trained to communicate and coordinate the sensing and acting. The completed system is shown to create new nonsymbolic transformationally invariant representations in order to perform the effective generalization of decentered viewpoints.  相似文献   
4.
直接驱动机器人单关节控制系统的研究   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
庞富胜 《机器人》1994,16(1):20-23
本文研究以PWM装置供电的直流电动机驱动的直接驱动机器人单关节控制系统。用8098单片机实现模控制结构控制器,使系统在各种工况下有良好的性能。文1研究了机器人单关节电机驱动的控制问题。采用该法可减少受系统参数和负载力矩变化的影响,本文用模控制结构方法来处理问题。理论分析和实验均证明,所用方法具有很强的鲁棒性。系统参数在100倍范围内变化时,系统都有很好的品质。  相似文献   
5.
一种基于阵列式触觉传感器的主动触觉搜索方法及仿真   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
张庆  蒋洪明 《机器人》1994,16(2):82-86
本文在一种二指节手指模型的基础上,提出了一种新的主动触觉搜索策略和方法,综合利用阵列式触觉传感铭的输出图象来不断改变机械手的姿态,从而依次有序地搜索到三维物体的特征点,并据此生成物体的三维图形。此外还讨论了上述方法的计算机仿真实现。  相似文献   
6.
A method for the time suboptimal control of an industrial manipulator from an initial position and orientation to a final position and orientation as it moves along a specified path is proposed. Nonlinear system equations that describe the manipulator motion are linearized at each time step along the path. A method which gives the control inputs (joint angular velocities) for time suboptimal control of the manipulator is developed. In the formulation, joint angular velocity and acceleration limitations are also taken into consideration. A six degree of freedom elbow type manipulator is used in numerical examples to verify the method developed.  相似文献   
7.
The development of autonomous mobile machines to perform useful tasks in real work environments is currently being impeded by concerns over effectiveness, commercial viability and, above all, safety. This paper introduces a case study of a robotic excavator to explore a series of issues around system development, navigation in unstructured environments, autonomous decision making and changing the behaviour of autonomous machines to suit the prevailing demands of users. The adoption of the Real-Time Control Systems (RCS) architecture (Albus, 1991) is proposed as a universal framework for the development of intelligent systems. In addition it is explained how the use of Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDP) (Kaelbling et al., 1998) can form the basis of decision making in the face of uncertainty and how the technique can be effectively incorporated into the RCS architecture. Particular emphasis is placed on ensuring that the resulting behaviour is both task effective and adequately safe, and it is recognised that these two objectives may be in opposition and that the desired relative balance between them may change. The concept of an autonomous system having “values” is introduced through the use of utility theory. Limited simulation results of experiments are reported which demonstrate that these techniques can create intelligent systems capable of modifying their behaviour to exhibit either ‘safety conscious’ or ‘task achieving’ personalities.  相似文献   
8.
We introduce an effective computer aided learning visual tool (CALVT) to teach graph-based applications. We present the robot motion planning problem as an example of such applications. The proposed tool can be used to simulate and/or further to implement practical systems in different areas of computer science such as graphics, computational geometry, robotics and networking. In the robot motion planning example, CALVT enables users to setup the working environment by creating obstacles and a robot of different shapes, specifying starting and goal positions, and setting other path or environment parameters from a user-friendly interface. The path planning system involves several phases. Each of these modules is complex and therefore we provide the possibility of visualizing graphically the output of each phase. Based on our experience, this tool has been an effective one in classroom teaching. It not only cuts down, significantly, on the instructor’s time and effort but also motivates senior/graduate students to pursue work in this specific area of research.  相似文献   
9.
路径规划是机器人技术中的重要组成部分,分全局路径规划和局部路径规划。本文将栅格法与模拟退火法结合,采用栅格法表示环境信息。局部路径规划主要基于模拟退火法,使路径跳出局部极小点,到达目标位置。  相似文献   
10.
本文从旋量入手,详细深入地论证和推导了螺旋变换,逆变换及其微分,并结合牛顿-欧拉方法给出了一种用于机器人动力学分析计算的旋量方程。全部推导过程十分简洁,思路独特,得到的机器人动力学模型也非常简洁,而且便于数字计算。文中理论同时也为其它空间机构的运动和动力分析提供了一条新路子,文章最后给出的例子证实了文中理论和数学推导的正确性.  相似文献   
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