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1.
Monitoring the temperature in liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks on ships is important for the safety of maritime navigation. In addition, accurate temperature measurement is also required for commercial transactions. Temperature and pressure define the density of liquid hydrogen, which is directly linked to trading interests. In this study, we developed and tested a liquid hydrogen temperature monitoring system that uses platinum resistance sensors with a nominal electrical resistance of approximately 1000 Ω at room temperature, PT-1000, for marine applications. The temperature measurements were carried out using a newly developed temperature monitoring system under different pressure conditions. The measured values are compared with a calibrated reference PT-1000 resistance thermometer. We confirm a measurement accuracy of ±50 mK in a pressure range of 0.1 MPa–0.5 MPa.  相似文献   
2.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(11):15243-15251
Green combustion was used to prepare a ferrite composition of Mg0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 using a blend of fresh lemon juice as a natural fuel-reductant. Effect of heat treatment on phase, morphological, dielectric, and humidity sensor properties is discussed. The formation of a cubic spinel ferrite has been established by XRD-diffraction and vibrational spectroscopic studies. The experimental lattice parameter ranges from 8.3721 to 8.3631 Å. The broadening of octahedral band (υ2) in the vibrational spectra is an identification for the existence of ferrite nanoparticles in various sizes. The typical crystallite size ranges from 10.2 to 36.9 nm. Using micrographs obtained from field-effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), researchers observed a spherical-shaped microstructure with agglomerated nanoparticles. Dielectric investigations have shown that the current ferrite composition has typical dielectric dispersion. The highest reported value for saturation magnetization (Ms) in the present study is 33 emu/g. Magnetic behaviour is primarily influenced by magnetocrystalline anisotropy, cation distribution, and crystallite size. The existence of void spaces in the sintered samples, as well as their porous nature, rendered them suitable for humidity sensor applications. Sintered samples have good sensing capability at 900 °C. The current findings are integrated in terms of cation distribution and magnetocrystalline anisotropy, assuming fine size effects of ferrite nanoparticles.  相似文献   
3.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(11):15043-15055
This work reports magnetic permeability and ammonia gas sensing characteristics of La3+ substituted Co–Zn nano ferrites possessing chemical formula Co0.7Zn0.3LaxFe2-2xO4 (x = 0–0.1) synthesized by a sol-gel route. Refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the ferrite powders by the Rietveld technique has revealed the creation of single-phase spinel structure. The tenancy of constituent cations at tetrahedral/octahedral sites was obtained from the refinement of XRD. The crystallite sizes calculated from the W–H method vary from 20 to 24 nm. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) profiles of the ferrite samples were analyzed for the morphological details. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) patterns of the samples were obtained to test the elemental purity of the ferrites within their stoichiometry. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) image of the ferrite (x = 0.1) exhibits the spherical and oval shaped particles with a mean size of 20 nm. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra were analyzed to confirm the superseding of La3+ cations at octahedral sites. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis of nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms of the ferrites was performed to investigate the porous structure and to determine the surface area of the nanocrystalline ferrites. The oxidation states of the constituent ions were confirmed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The complex permeability as a function of frequency was studied to explore the effects of structural parameters on the magnetic behaviour of the ferrites. Analysis of gas sensing properties of the ferrites have proved that the Co–Zn–La ferrite with controlled La composition can be utilized as an effective ammonia gas sensing material in commercial gas sensors.  相似文献   
4.
In the context of the high-level radioactive waste disposal CIGEO, the corrosion rate due to microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has to be evaluated. In France, it is envisaged to dispose of high- and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste at a depth of 500 m in a deep geological disposal, drilled in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone (Cox) formation. To do so, a carbon steel casing will be inserted inside disposal cells, which are horizontal tunnels drilled in the Cox. A specific cement grout will be injected between the carbon steel casing and the claystone. A study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of MIC on carbon steel in the foreseeable high radioactive waste disposal. The corrosiveness of various environments was investigated at 50°C and 80°C with or without microorganisms enriched from samples of Andra's underground research laboratory. The monitoring of corrosion during the experiments was ensured using gravimetric method and real-time corrosion monitoring using sensors based on the measurements of the electrical resistance. The corrosion data were completed with microbiological analyses including cultural and molecular characterizations.  相似文献   
5.
针对传统移动代理(MA)在监测无线传感器网络(WSNs)的感兴趣信息时产生的延迟较大和能耗较多问题,提出了基于三维胞元空间的MA双向并行(3D-BPMA)路由算法.3D-BPMA将MA与传统的客户/服务器(c/S)模式相结合,在胞元内利用C/S模式搜集信息,在单层胞元系统和路由器与路由器之间采用MA双向并行的策略进行传输.仿真结果表明:3D-BPMA与LCF,DSG-MIP算法相比减少了平均响应时间和网络平均能耗,提高了MA发送率.  相似文献   
6.
Several three-party password authenticated key exchange (3-PAKE) protocols have recently been proposed for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSN). These are efficient and designed to address security concerns in ad-hoc sensor network applications for a global Internet of Things framework, where a user may request access to sensitive information collected by resource-constrained sensors in clusters managed by gateway nodes. In this paper we first analyze three recently proposed 3-PAKE protocols and discuss their vulnerabilities. Then, based on Radio Frequency Identification technologies we propose a novel 3-PAKE protocol for HWSN applications, with two extensions for additional security features, that is provably secure, efficient and flexible.  相似文献   
7.
In recent years, Internet of Things (IoT) devices are used for remote health monitoring. For remotely monitoring a patient, only the health information at different time points are not sufficient; predicted values of biomarkers (for some future time points) are also important. In this article, we propose a powerful statistical model for an efficient dynamic patient monitoring using wireless sensor nodes through Bayesian Learning (BL). We consider the setting where a set of correlated biomarkers are measured from a patient through wireless sensors, but the sensors only report the ordinal outcomes (say, good, fair, high, or very high) to the sink based on some prefixed thresholds. The challenge is to use the ordinal outcomes for monitoring and predicting the health status of the patient under consideration. We propose a linear mixed model where interbiomarker correlations and intrabiomarker dependence are modeled simultaneously. The estimated and the predicted values of the biomarkers are transferred over the internet so that health care providers and the family members of the patient can remotely monitor the patient. Extensive simulation studies are performed to assess practical usefulness of our proposed joint model, and the performance of the proposed joint model is compared to that of some other traditional models used in the literature.  相似文献   
8.
A simple, cost-effective, and novel chemical sensor for ammonia (NH3) gas detection was developed from polyaniline (PANI)/quail eggshell (QES) composites. QES is a natural waste enriched in calcium carbonate. In this work, pure PANI was synthesized from chemical oxidation method and PANI/QES composites were prepared from physical mixing of QES with the synthesized PANI at different mass ratio. A series of complementary techniques including Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectrometers, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive detection coupled with mapping, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffractometer were used to characterize the physicochemical and textural properties of the biocomposites. From the results, PANI/QES composite with a mass ratio of 1 exhibited the lowest NH3 detection limit of 5.24 ppm with a linear correlation coefficient (R2) of close to unity (0.9932) between the signal and NH3 gas concentration. As a whole, the PANI/QES biocomposites synthesized from this work exhibited excellent selectivity toward NH3 gas even in the presence of other gas impurities, such as acetone, ethanol, and hexane. For the sensor reusability, the PANI/QES biocomposites can be reused in the application of NH3 gas detection for at least 4 cycles.  相似文献   
9.
One of the major challenges in wireless body area networks (WBANs) is sensor fault detection. This paper reports a method for the precise identification of faulty sensors, which should help users identify true medical conditions and reduce the rate of false alarms, thereby improving the quality of services offered by WBANs. The proposed sensor fault detection (SFD) algorithm is based on Pearson correlation coefficients and simple statistical methods. The proposed method identifies strongly correlated parameters using Pearson correlation coefficients, and the proposed SFD algorithm detects faulty sensors. We validated the proposed SFD algorithm using two datasets from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care database and compared the results to those of existing methods. The time complexity of the proposed algorithm was also compared to that of existing methods. The proposed algorithm achieved high detection rates and low false alarm rates with accuracies of 97.23% and 93.99% for Dataset 1 and Dataset 2, respectively.  相似文献   
10.
This paper presents an energy-efficient switching scheme for successive approximation register (SAR) analogue-to-digital converter (ADC). The proposed scheme employs charge recycling method to keep the capacitor arrays free of transitional energy between bit generations except reset phase. In comparison with the conventional switching scheme, the proposed one achieves 100% transitional energy saving without considering reset phase. In addition, configuration of a 10-bit SAR ADC shows that the proposed switching scheme reduces the capacitor area by 25% compared with the conventional switching scheme.  相似文献   
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