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1.
A new catalyst for both water reduction and oxidation, based on an infinite chain, {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n, is formed by the reaction of NiCl2, 1,3-propanediamine (tn) and K3 [Fe(CN)6]. {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n can electro-catalyze hydrogen evolution from a neutral aqueous buffer (pH 7.0) with a turnover frequency (TOF) of 1561 mol of hydrogen per mole of catalyst per hour (H2/mol catalyst/h) at an overpotential (OP) of 837 mV {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n also can electro-catalyze O2 production from water with a TOF of ~45 mol O2 (mol cat)?1s?1 at an OP of 591 mV. Under blue light (λ = 469 nm), together with CdS nanorods (CdS NRs) as a photosensitizer, and ascorbic acid (H2A) as a sacrificial electron donor, {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n can photo-catalyze hydrogen generation from an aqueous buffer (pH 4.0) with a turnover number (TON) of 11,450 mol H2 per mole of catalyst (mol of H2 (mol of cat)?1) during 10 h irradiation. The average of apparent quantum yield (AQY) is as high as 40.96% during 10 h irradiation. Studies indicate that {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n exists in two forms: a cyano-bridged chain ({[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n) in solid, and a salt ([Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)6]2) in aqueous media; Catalytic reaction occurs on the nickel center of [Ni(tn)2]2+, and the introduction of [Fe(CN)6]3- can improve the catalytic efficiency of [Ni(tn)2]2+ for H2 or O2 generation. We hope these findings can afford a new method for the design of catalysts for both water reduction and oxidation.  相似文献   
2.
新型建筑工业化具有高质量、低消耗、可循环发展等特征,其推广已上升到国家战略层面。利用演化博弈方法,建立“政府-开发商-银行” 的三方动态演化博弈模型,进行各博弈主体策略的演化稳定性分析,并针对初始状态、奖惩力度、借贷风险和开发成本等对演化结果的影响进行动态仿真。在此基础上, 考虑开发商群体的网络拓扑特征对演化真实性的影响,引入复杂网络理论, 以无标度网络为载体描述开发商个体的连接偏好和决策机制,构建政府监管下的建筑工业化扩散模型,并通过仿真深入研究相关因素对扩散深度的影响作用,最后结合仿真结果给出相应对策建议。  相似文献   
3.
Walnut flour (WF), a by-product of walnut oil production, is characterised by high polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, and fibre contents and presents suitability for bakery products. However, when using non-traditional ingredients, it is essential to evaluate the effect on the quality properties of the final product. So, this work aimed to assess the impact of WF on the technological, physicochemical, and sensory properties of gluten-free (GF) cakes. WF was added at a flour blend (cassava (CS) and maize (MS) starches and rice flour) at 0, 10%, 15%, and 20%. The results showed that WF modified starch gelatinisation, increased amylose–lipid complex (ALC) content, and made crumbs easier to chew. Besides, the total dietary fibre (TDF) and protein content significantly increased. Cakes with 15% WF presented the highest specific volume (SV) and no differences in overall acceptability with respect to control. Hence, WF is a suitable ingredient for gluten-free bakery products.  相似文献   
4.
A self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) was developed to enhance the absorption of heparin after oral administration, in which heparin was compounded with phospholipids to achieve better fat solubility in the form of heparin-phospholipid (HEP-Pc) complex. HEP-Pc complex was prepared using the solvent evaporation method, which increased the solubility of heparin in n-octanol. The successful preparation of HEP-Pc complex was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, NMR, and SEM. A heparin lipid microemulsion (HEP-LM) was prepared by high-pressure homogenization and characterized. HEP-LM can enhance the absorption of heparin after oral administration, significantly prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) in mice, and reduce fibrinogen (FIB) content. All these outcomes indicate that HEP-LM has great potential as an oral heparin formulation.  相似文献   
5.
Ionomics is a novel multidisciplinary field that uses advanced techniques to investigate the composition and distribution of all minerals and trace elements in a living organism and their variations under diverse physiological and pathological conditions. It involves both high-throughput elemental profiling technologies and bioinformatic methods, providing opportunities to study the molecular mechanism underlying the metabolism, homeostasis, and cross-talk of these elements. While much effort has been made in exploring the ionomic traits relating to plant physiology and nutrition, the use of ionomics in the research of serious diseases is still in progress. In recent years, a number of ionomic studies have been carried out for a variety of complex diseases, which offer theoretical and practical insights into the etiology, early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of them. This review aims to give an overview of recent applications of ionomics in the study of complex diseases and discuss the latest advances and future trends in this area. Overall, disease ionomics may provide substantial information for systematic understanding of the properties of the elements and the dynamic network of elements involved in the onset and development of diseases.  相似文献   
6.
Three N-heteroleptic Pt(II) complexes, [Pt(C^C)(O^O)] [O^O = acetylacetonate, C^C = 1-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene (1), C^C = 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene (2), C^C = 2-phenylpyrazine (3)] have been investigated with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The radiative decay rate constants of complexes 1–3 have been discussed with the oscillator strength (fn), the strength of spin–orbit coupling (SOC) interaction between the lowest energy triplet excited state (T1) and singlet excited states (Sn), and the energy gaps between E(T1) and E(Sn). To illustrate the nonradiative decay processes, the transition states between triplet metal-centered (3MC) and T1 states have been optimized and were verified with the calculations of vibrational frequencies and intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC). In addition, the minimum energy crossing points (MECPs) between 3MC and ground states (S0) were optimized. At last, the potential energy curves relevant to the nonradiative decay pathways are simulated. The results show that complex 3 has the biggest photoluminescence quantum yield because the complex 3 has the biggest radiative decay rate constant and the smallest nonradiative decay rate constant in complexes 1–3.  相似文献   
7.
Cyclodextrins (CyDs) are water-soluble host molecules possessing a nanosized hydrophobic cavity. In the realm of molecular recognition, this cavity is used not only as a recognition site but also as a reaction medium, where a hydrophobic sensor recognizes a guest molecule. Based on the latter concept, we have designed a novel supramolecular sensing system composed of Zn(II)-dipicolylamine metal complex-based azobenzene (1-Zn) and 3A-amino-3A-deoxy-(2AS,3AS)-γ-cyclodextrin (3-NH2-γ-CyD) for sensing adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP). 1-Zn showed redshifts in the UV-Vis spectra and induced circular dichroism (ICD) only when both ATP and 3-NH2-γ-CyD were present. Calculations of equilibrium constants indicated that the amino group of 3-NH2-γ-CyD was involved in the formation of supramolecular 1-Zn/3-NH2-γ-CyD/ATP. The Job plot of the ICD spectral response revealed that the stoichiometry of 1-Zn/3-NH2-γ-CyD/ATP was 2:1:1. The pH effect was examined and 1-Zn/3-NH2-γ-CyD/ATP was most stable in the neutral condition. The NOESY spectrum suggested the localization of 1-Zn in the 3-NH2-γ-CyD cavity. Based on the obtained results, the metal coordination interaction of 1-Zn and the electrostatic interaction of 3-NH2-γ-CyD were found to take place for ATP recognition. The “reaction medium approach” enabled us to develop a supramolecular sensing system that undergoes multi-point interactions in water. This study is the first step in the design of a selective sensing system based on a good understanding of supramolecular structures.  相似文献   
8.
This study demonstrates the application of an improved Evolutionary optimization Algorithm (EA), titled Multi-Objective Complex Evolution Global Optimization Method with Principal Component Analysis and Crowding Distance Operator (MOSPD), for the hydropower reservoir operation of the Oroville–Thermalito Complex (OTC) – a crucial head-water resource for the California State Water Project (SWP). In the OTC's water-hydropower joint management study, the nonlinearity of hydropower generation and the reservoir's water elevation–storage relationship are explicitly formulated by polynomial function in order to closely match realistic situations and reduce linearization approximation errors. Comparison among different curve-fitting methods is conducted to understand the impact of the simplification of reservoir topography. In the optimization algorithm development, techniques of crowding distance and principal component analysis are implemented to improve the diversity and convergence of the optimal solutions towards and along the Pareto optimal set in the objective space. A comparative evaluation among the new algorithm MOSPD, the original Multi-Objective Complex Evolution Global Optimization Method (MOCOM), the Multi-Objective Differential Evolution method (MODE), the Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA), the Multi-Objective Simulated Annealing approach (MOSA), and the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization scheme (MOPSO) is conducted using the benchmark functions. The results show that best the MOSPD algorithm demonstrated the best and most consistent performance when compared with other algorithms on the test problems. The newly developed algorithm (MOSPD) is further applied to the OTC reservoir releasing problem during the snow melting season in 1998 (wet year), 2000 (normal year) and 2001 (dry year), in which the more spreading and converged non-dominated solutions of MOSPD provide decision makers with better operational alternatives for effectively and efficiently managing the OTC reservoirs in response to the different climates, especially drought, which has become more and more severe and frequent in California.  相似文献   
9.
Based on that hydrogen energy is widely used in fuel cells, we focus our interests on the design and research of new complexes that catalyze the reaction in both directions, such as hydrogen evolution reactions (HERs) and hydrogen oxidation reactions (HORs). A highly efficient catalyst for both hydrogen evolution and oxidation, based on a nickel(II) complex, [Ni-en-P2](ClO4)2, has been designed and provided by the reaction of Ni(ClO4)2 with N,N′-bis[o-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene]ethylenediamine (en-P2) in our group. Its structure has been determined by X-ray diffraction. [Ni-en-P2](ClO4)2 can electro-catalyze hydrogen evolution both from acetic acid and a neutral buffer (pH 7.0) with a turnover frequency (TOF) of 204 and 1327 mol of hydrogen per mole of catalyst per hour (H2/mol catalyst/h) under an overpotential (OP) of 914.6 mV and 836.6 mV, respectively. [Ni-en-P2](ClO4)2 also can electro-catalyze hydrogen oxidation with a TOF of 111.7 s−1 under an OP of 330 mV. The results can be attributed to that [NiII-en-P2](ClO4)2 has three good reversible redox waves at 1.01 (NiIII/II), −0.79 (NiII/I) and −1.38 V (NiI/0) versus Fc+/0, respectively. We hope these findings can afford a new method for the design of electrocatalysts for both H2 evolution and H2 oxidation.  相似文献   
10.
The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to hydrocarbons is a challenging task because of the issues in controlling the efficiency and selectivity of the products. Among the various transition metals, copper has attracted attention as it yields more reduced and C2 products even while using mononuclear copper center as catalysts. In addition, it is found that reversible formation of copper nanoparticle acts as the real catalytically active site for the conversion of CO2 to reduced products. Here, it is demonstrated that the dinuclear molecular copper complex immobilized over graphitized mesoporous carbon can act as catalysts for the conversion of CO2 to hydrocarbons (methane and ethylene) up to 60%. Interestingly, high selectivity toward C2 product (40% faradaic efficiency) is achieved by a molecular complex based hybrid material from CO2 in 0.1 m KCl. In addition, the role of local pH, porous structure, and carbon support in limiting the mass transport to achieve the highly reduced products is demonstrated. Although the spectroscopic analysis of the catalysts exhibits molecular nature of the complex after 2 h bulk electrolysis, morphological study reveals that the newly generated copper cluster is the real active site during the catalytic reactions.  相似文献   
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