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1.
On-site hydrogen production through steam-methane reforming (SMR) from city gas or natural gas is believed to be a cost-effective way for hydrogen-based infrastructure due to high cost of hydrogen transportation. In recent years, there have been a lot of on-site hydrogen fueling stations under design or construction in China. This study introduces current developments and technology prospects of skid-mounted SMR hydrogen generator. Also, technical solutions and economic analysis are discussed based on China's first on-site hydrogen fueling station project in Foshan. The cost of hydrogen product from skid-mounted SMR hydrogen generator is about 23 CNY/kg with 3.24 CNY/Nm3 natural gas. If hydrogen price is 60 CNY/kg, IRR of on-site hydrogen fueling station project reaches to 10.8%. While natural gas price fall to 2.3 CNY/Nm3, the hydrogen cost can be reduced to 18 CNY/kg, and IRR can be raised to 13.1%. The conclusion is that skid-mounted SMR technology has matured and is developing towards more compact and intelligent design, and will be a promising way for hydrogen fueling infrastructures in near future.  相似文献   
2.
Metals that are exposed to high pressure hydrogen gas may undergo detrimental failure by embrittlement. Understanding the mechanisms and driving forces of hydrogen absorption on the surface of metals is crucial for avoiding hydrogen embrittlement. In this study, the effect of stress-enhanced gaseous hydrogen uptake in bulk metals is investigated in detail. For that purpose, a generalized form of Sievert's law is derived from thermodynamic potentials considering the effect of microstructural trapping sites and multiaxial stresses. This new equation is parametrized and verified using experimental data for carbon steels, which were charged under gaseous hydrogen atmosphere at pressures up to 1000 bar. The role of microstructural trapping sites on the parameter identification is critically discussed. Finally, the parametrized equation is applied to calculate the stress-enhanced hydrogen solubility of thin-walled pipelines and thick-walled pressure vessels during service.  相似文献   
3.
The effective and efficient utilization of low-calorific value (LCV) gases has gained increasing attention in scientific research and industrial fields. In this study, the combustion characteristics of three LCV gases in practical devices are analyzed by using a nonadiabatic perfectly stirred reactor model. The complete steady-state solution in the temperature-residence time parameter space is obtained with arc-length continuation. The stable operation region is quantified by the eigenvalue analysis. The transition of solution curves is quantified with heat loss coefficient. Five key system parameters are systematically investigated on their effects on stability limits. With the combustion performance being quantified by a combustion state index, a combustion state regulation method is proposed to find the optimal regulation path of system parameters. Active subspace method is further applied to shorten the regulation step by identifying the active direction. The proposed method and findings are useful for optimal regulation of burning LCV gases in industrial burners.  相似文献   
4.
Ambient condition, especially the wind condition, is an important factor to determine the behavior of hydrogen diffusion during hydrogen release. However, only few studies aim at the quantitative study of the hydrogen diffusion in a wind-exist condition. And very little researches aiming at the variable wind condition have been done. In this paper, the hydrogen diffusion in different wind condition which including the constant wind velocity and the variable wind velocity is investigated numerically. When considering the variable wind velocity, the UDF (user defined function) is compiled. Characteristics of the FGC (flammable gas cloud) and the HMF (hydrogen mass fraction) are analyzed in different wind condition and comparisons are made with the no-wind condition. Results indicate that the constant wind velocity and the variable wind velocity have totally different effect for the determination of hydrogen diffusion. Comparisons between the constant wind velocity and the variable wind velocity indicate that the variable wind velocity may cause a more dangerous situation since there has a larger FGC volume. More importantly, the wind condition has a non-negligible effect when considering the HMF along the radial direction. As the wind velocity increases, the distribution of the HMF along the radial direction is not Gaussian anymore when the distance between the release hole and the observation line exceeds to a critical value. This work can be a supplement of the research on the hydrogen release and diffusion and a valuable reference for the researchers.  相似文献   
5.
Residential natural gas consumption depends on several factors. Available tools and methods to identify, categorize, and validate effective factors have some limitations, making consumption modeling more complex. Once a comprehensive model of effective consumption factors is developed for residential gas consumers, it can predict consumption. In addition, such a model could be used to verify the accuracy of measuring devices in order to reduce unaccounted for gas (UFG). The key factors affecting residential gas consumption were identified based on previous studies and their mutual effects were analyzed using a fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) method. The most significant factors and their effects on natural gas consumption in the residential sector were determined. In this study, for the first time, the expected consumption for each consumer was estimated using a consumption index. Generally, if the estimated consumption is significantly different from the amount recorded by the meter, it could suggest a potential source of UFG. The proposed method was applied to the data collected from the residential gas consumers of a small region in Iran (Dasht-e Arjan region, Fars province), and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.  相似文献   
6.
Ti-based amorphous metallic glasses have excellent mechanical, physical, and chemical properties, which is an important development direction and research hotspot of metal composite reinforcement. As a stable, simple, efficient, and large-scale preparation technology of metallic powders, the gas atomization process provides an effective way of preparing amorphous metallic glasses. In this study, the controllable fabrication of a Ti-based amorphous powder, with high efficiency, has been realized by using gas atomization. The scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectrometer, and X-ray diffraction are used to analyze surface morphology, element distribution, and phase structure, respectively. A microhardness tester is used to measure the mechanical property. An electrochemical workstation is used to characterize corrosion behavior. The results show that as-prepared microparticles are more uniform and exhibit good amorphous characteristics. The mechanical test shows that the hardness of amorphous powder is significantly increased as compared with that before preparation, which has the prospect of being an important part of engineering reinforced materials. Further electrochemical measurement shows that the corrosion resistance of the as-prepared sample is also significantly improved. This study has laid a solid foundation for expanding applications of Ti-based metallic glasses, especially in heavy-duty and corrosive domains.  相似文献   
7.
With liquefied natural gas becoming increasingly prevalent as a flexible source of energy, the design and optimization of industrial refrigeration cycles becomes even more important. In this article, we propose an integrated surrogate modeling and optimization framework to model and optimize the complex CryoMan Cascade refrigeration cycle. Dimensionality reduction techniques are used to reduce the large number of process decision variables which are subsequently supplied to an array of Gaussian processes, modeling both the process objective as well as feasibility constraints. Through iterative resampling of the rigorous model, this data-driven surrogate is continually refined and subsequently optimized. This approach was not only able to improve on the results of directly optimizing the process flow sheet but also located the set of optimal operating conditions in only 2 h as opposed to the original 3 weeks, facilitating its use in the operational optimization and enhanced process design of large-scale industrial chemical systems.  相似文献   
8.
This study assesses a sustainable solution to greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation using constructed wetland-microbial fuel cells (CW-MFC). Roots of wetland plant Acorus Calamus L. are placed in biological anode to better enable anode microorganisms to obtain rhizosphere secretion for power improvement. Three selected cathode materials have a large difference in GHG emissions, and among them, carbon fiber felt (CFF) shows the lowest emissions of methane and nitrous oxide, which are 0.77 ± 0.04 mg/(m2·h) and 130.78 ± 13.08 μg/(m2·h), respectively. The CFF CW-MFC achieves the maximum power density of 2.99 W/m3. As the influent pH value is adjusted from acidic to alkaline, the GHGs emissions are reduced. The addition of Ni inhibits GHGs emission but decreases the electricity, the power density is reduced to 1.09 W/m3, and the methane and nitrous oxide emission fluxes decline to 0.20 ± 0.04 mg/(m2·h) and 15.49 ± 1.86 μg/(m2·h), respectively. Low C/N ratio reduces methane emission, while high C/N ratio effectively inhibits nitrous oxide emission. At the influent pH 8 and C/N = 5:1, the methane emission flux is approximately 10.60 ± 0.27 mg/(m2·h), and the nitrous oxide emission flux is only 10.90 ± 1.10 μg/(m2·h). Based on the above experimental results by controlling variable factors, it is proposed that CW-MFC offers an environment-friendly solution to regulate GHG emissions.  相似文献   
9.
Hydrogen as an energy carrier can play a significant role in reducing environmental emissions if it is produced from renewable energy resources. This research aims to assess hydrogen production from wind energy considering environmental, economic, and technical aspect for the East Azerbaijan province of Iran. The economic assessment is performed by calculation of payback period, levelized cost of hydrogen, and levelized cost of electricity. Since uncertainty in the power output of wind turbines may affect the payback period, all calculations are performed for four different turbine degradation rates. While it is common in the literature to choose the wind turbine based on a single criterion, this study implements Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) techniques for this purpose. The results of Step-wise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis illustrates that economic issue is the most important criterion for this research. The results of Weighted Aggregated Sum Product Assessment shows that Vestas V52 is the most suitable wind turbine for Ahar and Sarab cities, while Eovent EVA120 H-Darrieus is a better choice for other stations. The most suitable location for wind power generation is found to be Ahar, where it is estimated to annually generate 2914.8 kWh of electricity at the price of 0.045 $/kWh, and 47.2 tons of hydrogen at the price of 1.38 $/kg, which result in 583 tons of CO2 emission reduction.  相似文献   
10.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(11):15043-15055
This work reports magnetic permeability and ammonia gas sensing characteristics of La3+ substituted Co–Zn nano ferrites possessing chemical formula Co0.7Zn0.3LaxFe2-2xO4 (x = 0–0.1) synthesized by a sol-gel route. Refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the ferrite powders by the Rietveld technique has revealed the creation of single-phase spinel structure. The tenancy of constituent cations at tetrahedral/octahedral sites was obtained from the refinement of XRD. The crystallite sizes calculated from the W–H method vary from 20 to 24 nm. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) profiles of the ferrite samples were analyzed for the morphological details. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) patterns of the samples were obtained to test the elemental purity of the ferrites within their stoichiometry. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) image of the ferrite (x = 0.1) exhibits the spherical and oval shaped particles with a mean size of 20 nm. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra were analyzed to confirm the superseding of La3+ cations at octahedral sites. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis of nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms of the ferrites was performed to investigate the porous structure and to determine the surface area of the nanocrystalline ferrites. The oxidation states of the constituent ions were confirmed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The complex permeability as a function of frequency was studied to explore the effects of structural parameters on the magnetic behaviour of the ferrites. Analysis of gas sensing properties of the ferrites have proved that the Co–Zn–La ferrite with controlled La composition can be utilized as an effective ammonia gas sensing material in commercial gas sensors.  相似文献   
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