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1.
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the manufacture of polyvinylchloride plastics and has been associated with concerns regarding male reproductive toxicity. In this study, we hypothesized that maternal exposure to DEHP induces transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset adverse reproductive outcomes through the male germline in the F1, F2, and F3 generations of male offspring. Pregnant rats were treated with 5 or 500 mg of DEHP/kg/day through gavage from gestation day 0 to birth. The offspring body weight, anogenital distance (AGD), anogenital index (AGI), sperm count, motility, and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) were measured for all generations. Methyl-CpG binding domain sequencing was performed to analyze sperm DNA methylation status in the F3. DEHP exposure at 500 mg/kg affected AGD, AGI, sperm count, mean DFI, and %DFI in the F1; AGD, sperm count, and mean DFI in the F2; and AGD, AGI, mean DFI, and %DFI in the F3. DEHP exposure at 5 mg/kg affected AGD, AGI, sperm count, and %DFI in the F1; sperm count in the F2; and AGD and AGI in F3. Compared with the control group, 15 and 45 differentially hypermethylated genes were identified in the groups administered 5 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg DEHP, respectively. Moreover, 130 and 6 differentially hypomethylated genes were observed in the groups administered 5 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg DEHP. Overall, these results demonstrated that prenatal exposure to DEHP caused transgenerational epigenetic effects, which may explain the observed phenotypic changes in the male reproductive system.  相似文献   
2.
One specific class of non-linear evolution equations, known as the Tzitzéica-type equations, has received great attention from a group of researchers involved in non-linear science. In this article, new exact solutions of the Tzitzéica-type equations arising in non-linear optics, including the Tzitzéica, Dodd–Bullough–Mikhailov and Tzitzéica–Dodd–Bullough equations, are obtained using the expa function method. The integration technique actually suggests a useful and reliable method to extract new exact solutions of a wide range of non-linear evolution equations.  相似文献   
3.
The evaluation of functional features of manufactured workpieces is based on GO- and NO-GO-test results, which are obtained by comparing measured geometric characteristics with nominal dimensions and tolerances specified by the designer. These geometrical specifications are based on a tolerancing system, which was originally defined for the function mating capability. Against the background of upcoming lots of other new functions (like reduction of flow resistance, light absorption, reduction of friction, diffraction of light, self-cleaning or mass transmission) are to be realized with our products – particularly by micro- and nano scaled features. If the verification process will deliver the prediction of the achievable degree of functionality, the usability of a part can be assessed more accurately and in consequence quality and economics can be improved. So, a new principle for tolerancing and verifying turns out to be necessary. In this paper the fundamental deficit of the actual tolerancing and specification systems GPS and ASME Y14.5 is derived and the path for enlarging the system by preposing a functional model is shown. To verify the functional capability of the workpieces an approach based on simulations done with the parameterized mathematical–physical model of the function is suggested. Advantages of this approach will be discussed and demonstrated by examples with microstructured inking rolls, crankshafts and injection valves.  相似文献   
4.
We report a simple processing method to simultaneously improve the efficiency and stability of organic solar cells (OSCs). Poly(4-styrene sulfonate)-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene (PEDOT:PSS), widely used as hole transport layer (HTL) in OSCs, tends to accelerate the degradation of devices because of its hygroscopic and acidic properties. In this regard, we have modified PEDOT:PSS to reduce its hygroscopic and acidic properties through a condensation reaction between PEDOT:PSS and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (PEGME) in order to improve the efficiency and stability of OSCs. As a result, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) increased by 21%, from 2.57% up to 3.11%. A better energy level alignment by the reduced work function of the modified PEDOT:PSS with a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) is considered the origin of the improved the efficiency. The half-life of OSCs with PEDOT:PSS modified with PEGME buffer layer also increased up to 3.5 times compared to that of devices with pristine PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.  相似文献   
5.
Image color clustering is a basic technique in image processing and computer vision, which is often applied in image segmentation, color transfer, contrast enhancement, object detection, skin color capture, and so forth. Various clustering algorithms have been employed for image color clustering in recent years. However, most of the algorithms require a large amount of memory or a predetermined number of clusters. In addition, some of the existing algorithms are sensitive to the parameter configurations. In order to tackle the above problems, we propose an image color clustering method named Student's t-based density peaks clustering with superpixel segmentation (tDPCSS), which can automatically obtain clustering results, without requiring a large amount of memory, and is not dependent on the parameters of the algorithm or the number of clusters. In tDPCSS, superpixels are obtained based on automatic and constrained simple non-iterative clustering, to automatically decrease the image data volume. A Student's t kernel function and a cluster center selection method are adopted to eliminate the dependence of the density peak clustering on parameters and the number of clusters, respectively. The experiments undertaken in this study confirmed that the proposed approach outperforms k-means, fuzzy c-means, mean-shift clustering, and density peak clustering with superpixel segmentation in the accuracy of the cluster centers and the validity of the clustering results.  相似文献   
6.
针对区域地面沉降监测点数量有限、分布不均的情况,一般采用空间插值的手段建立表面拟合模型来解决。基于分形插值,采用随机选择迭代函数的思想对传统的趋势面拟合法作出改进,改进后拟合优度系数提高0.03,达到0.995,且改进前后的拟合结果符合显著性检验的要求。实验结果表明:改进前后趋势面拟合法拟合结果满足地面沉降监测的精度要求,改进后方法的拟合优度更高,对现实地面沉降量变化的描绘更加真实,可为沉降灾害评价工作提供更准确的依据。  相似文献   
7.
Since the introduction of bender element tests to soil testing, the reliability of the estimated travel time has been the most serious problem. The author has previously shown a potential solution whereby removing the response of the bender element subsystem from the whole response could dramatically improve the accuracy of the travel time estimation. In order to lay the foundation for estimating the response of the bender element subsystem, this paper examines the correlation between the displacements of the element and the induced feedback signals by employing a self-monitoring element. The response of the self-monitoring element is modeled as a transfer function involving two internal transfer functions that relate the input signals to the displacements and the displacements to the feedback signals, respectively. Using a laser displacement sensor, the displacements are directly measured through the entire surface and reveal the three-dimensional bending motion of the element oscillating in both longitudinal and width directions. The feedback signals are similar to, but inconsistent with, the tip displacements, and an attempt is made to correct the feedback signals. Finally, a conclusion is given on the potential for estimating the response of the bender element subsystem using the self-monitoring element.  相似文献   
8.
This paper presents an analytical solution to the non-uniform pressure on thick-walled cylinder. The formulation is based on the linear elasticity theory (plain strain) and stress function method. As an example, the proposed solution is used to model the stress distribution due to non-uniform steel reinforcement corrosion in concrete. The model is formulated considering different scenarios of corrosion pressure distribution. It is validated against the finite element model for different cases of non-uniform pressure distributions. The results show that the corrosion-induced cracks are likely to start just beyond the anodic zone. This is confirmed by the experimental tests on concrete cylinder exposed to non-uniform accelerated corrosion of steel reinforcement. The model can be effectively used to calculate the distribution of corrosion-induced stresses in concrete.  相似文献   
9.
Due to the law of reflection, a concave reflecting surface/mirror causes the incident light rays to converge and a convex surface/mirror causes the light rays to reflect away so that they all appear to be diverging. These converging and diverging behaviors cause that the curved mirrors show different image types depending on the distance between the object and the mirror. We model such optical phenomena metaphorically into the searching process of numerical optimization by a new algorithm called optics inspired optimization (OIO). OIO treats the surface of the numerical function to be optimized as a reflecting surface in which each peak is assumed to reflect as a convex mirror and each valley to reflect as a concave one. Each individual is assumed to be an artificial object (or light point) that its artificially glittered ray is reflected back by the function surface, given that the surface is convex or concave, and the artificial image is formed (a candidate solution is generated within the search domain) based on the mirror equations adopted from physics of optics. Besides OIO, we introduce different variants of it, called ROIO (Rotation based OIO), and COIO (Convex combination based OIO) algorithms and conduct an extensive computational effort to find out the merit of the new algorithms. Our comparisons on benchmark test functions and a real world engineering design application (i.e., optimization of a centrifuge pump) demonstrate that the new algorithms are efficient and compete better than or similar to most of state of the art optimization algorithms with the advantage of accepting few input parameters.  相似文献   
10.
Sarcopenia is the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with advancing age. It involves both complex genetic and modifiable risk factors, such as lack of exercise, malnutrition and reduced neurological drive. Cognitive decline refers to diminished or impaired mental and/or intellectual functioning. Contracting skeletal muscle is a major source of neurotrophic factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which regulate synapses in the brain. Furthermore, skeletal muscle activity has important immune and redox effects that modify brain function and reduce muscle catabolism. The identification of common risk factors and underlying mechanisms for sarcopenia and cognition may allow the development of targeted interventions that slow or reverse sarcopenia and also certain forms of cognitive decline. However, the links between cognition and skeletal muscle have not been elucidated fully. This review provides a critical appraisal of the literature on the relationship between skeletal muscle health and cognition. The literature suggests that sarcopenia and cognitive decline share pathophysiological pathways. Ageing plays a role in both skeletal muscle deterioration and cognitive decline. Furthermore, lifestyle risk factors, such as physical inactivity, poor diet and smoking, are common to both disorders, so their potential role in the muscle–brain relationship warrants investigation.  相似文献   
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