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This review examines the application, limitations, and potential alternatives to the Hagberg–Perten falling number (FN) method used in the global wheat industry for detecting the risk of poor end-product quality mainly due to starch degradation by the enzyme α-amylase. By viscometry, the FN test indirectly detects the presence of α-amylase, the primary enzyme that digests starch. Elevated α-amylase results in low FN and damages wheat product quality resulting in cakes that fall, and sticky bread and noodles. Low FN can occur from preharvest sprouting (PHS) and late maturity α-amylase (LMA). Moist or rainy conditions before harvest cause PHS on the mother plant. Continuously cool or fluctuating temperatures during the grain filling stage cause LMA. Due to the expression of additional hydrolytic enzymes, PHS has a stronger negative impact than LMA. Wheat grain with low FN/high α-amylase results in serious losses for farmers, traders, millers, and bakers worldwide. Although blending of low FN grain with sound wheat may be used as a means of moving affected grain through the marketplace, care must be taken to avoid grain lots from falling below contract-specified FN. A large amount of sound wheat can be ruined if mixed with a small amount of sprouted wheat. The FN method is widely employed to detect α-amylase after harvest. However, it has several limitations, including sampling variability, high cost, labor intensiveness, the destructive nature of the test, and an inability to differentiate between LMA and PHS. Faster, cheaper, and more accurate alternatives could improve breeding for resistance to PHS and LMA and could preserve the value of wheat grain by avoiding inadvertent mixing of high- and low-FN grain by enabling testing at more stages of the value stream including at harvest, delivery, transport, storage, and milling. Alternatives to the FN method explored here include the Rapid Visco Analyzer, enzyme assays, immunoassays, near-infrared spectroscopy, and hyperspectral imaging.  相似文献   
3.
红外偏振光治疗仪是一种将红外技术与电子技术应用到医学领域的康复理疗设备,主要用于软组织损伤和慢性疼痛的康复治疗,已在医院得到了推广使用。然而,现有医院使用的台式治疗仪由于体积大、售价高等特点,不方便居家使用。为了开发体积小、售价低、家庭可用的红外偏振光治疗仪,满足家用市场的潜在需求,本文提出了一种新的便携手持式红外偏振光治疗仪,并开发了该智能控制系统。本文首先介绍了一种新的家用手持式治疗仪应具备的特点和关键技术指标,在此基础上设计了手持式治疗仪的硬件总体方案和软件架构,简要介绍了该治疗仪的一些关键技术,最终实现了治疗仪样机的研制。为了验证该样机的性能,本文通过大量的测试,结果表明,研制的手持式红外偏振光治疗仪在关键参数指标上达到了医院同类产品的水平,能够很好地满足家用的需求,具有良好的市场前景。  相似文献   
4.
In this paper, a new inverse identification method of constitutive parameters is developed from full kinematic and thermal field measurements. It consists in reconstructing the heat source field from two different approaches by using the heat diffusion equation. The first one requires the temperature field measurement and the value of the thermophysical parameters. The second one is based on the kinematic field measurement and the choice of a thermo-hyperelastic model that contains the parameters to be identified. The identification is carried out at the local scale, ie, at any point of the heat source field, without using the boundary conditions. In the present work, the method is applied to the challenging case of hyperelasticity from a heterogeneous test. Due to large deformations undergone by the rubber specimen tested, a motion compensation technique is developed to plot the kinematic and the thermal fields at the same points before reconstructing the heterogeneous heat source field. In the present case, the constitutive parameter of the Neo-Hookean model has been identified, and its distribution has been characterized with respect to the strain state at the surface of a cross-shaped specimen.  相似文献   
5.
曾靓妮  邓方阁 《红外技术》2020,42(5):501-505
乳腺疾病已严重危害女性身心健康,其中乳腺癌更位居全球范围内女性癌症发病率和死亡率首位,因此乳腺癌的早期发现意义重大。传统结构影像学早期检测疾病具有一定局限性,而红外热成像作为功能成像技术可为乳腺癌的早期筛查提供有效线索。因此本文主要就红外热成像在乳腺疾病的早期检测及预后评估的应用价值进行综述。  相似文献   
6.
Reflective judgement is crucial for medical-related practitioners in dealing with controversial issues. However, the conformity phenomenon is likely to occur and interfere with reflective judgement learning during interactive activities. Effective strategies are required to moderate the conformity behaviour tendency (CBT) and improve reflective judgement performance (RJP). This study demonstrates two significant results: (a) Compared with the guided self-reflection learning strategy, the online collective reflection (OCR) learning strategy effectively weakened the learners' general CBT while dealing with professional controversial issues; and (b) a significantly negative correlation between the RJP achieved and the change of CBT in online environment was detected in the OCR group. The implications and potential applications in higher education were discussed. Further studies are needed to confirm the long-term effects and the extending application to other professional studies.  相似文献   
7.
提出一种基于随机光栅与高反射布拉格光栅(FBG)相结合的可调谐随机光纤激光器。利用980nm泵浦光源泵浦一段7m长的掺铒光纤(EDF)进行增益放大,由随机光栅提供随机反馈。随机光栅长7cm,具有约10000个折射率修改点,这些点由飞秒激光逐点写入,并沿光纤方向随机分布,两点相邻间隔小于10μm。同时,利用中心波长为1548nm的高反射FBG来组成半开放腔结构,实现了随机激光的输出。实验测得的泵浦阈值功率仅为18mW,斜率效率高达13.2%,并通过改变FBG的中心波长,实现了输出激光波长的可调谐,调谐范围为4.45nm(1548.04~1552.49nm)。得益于半开放式激光腔的设计和EDF的高增益,整个系统具有阈值低、效率高、结构简单等优点。  相似文献   
8.
The rapid development of the science and technology of organic semiconductors has already led to mass application of organic light‐emitting diodes (OLEDs) in television monitors of outstanding quality as well as in a large variety of smaller displays found in smartphones, tablets, and other gadgets, while introduction of the technology to the illumination sector is imminent. Notably, the requirements of all such applications for emission in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum are well tuned to the optical and electronic properties of typical organic semiconductors, thereby representing relatively “low‐hanging fruits,” in terms of material development and exploitation. However, the question arises as to whether developing materials suited for efficient near‐infrared (NIR, 700–1000 nm) emission is possible, and, crucially, desirable to enable new classes of applications spanning from through‐space, short‐range communications to biomedical sensors, night vision, and more generally security applications to name but a few. Here, the major fundamental hurdles to be overcome to achieve efficient NIR emission from organic π‐conjugated systems are discussed, recent progress is reviewed, and an outlook for further development of both materials and applications is provided.  相似文献   
9.
如何在复杂背景下持续有效地检测目标位置,一直是研究者们需要面对的主要挑战。本文在研究红外点状移动目标特征的基础上,根据目标无纹理,无形状的特性,提出一种改进的形态学目标增强算法,并利用目标连续时空不变性检测目标。首先,建立多尺度的图像金字塔,在每层上采用改进的形态学算法快速、粗糙定位小目标。然后进一步的根据目标在时空上的位置相关性,提出基于目标运动特征分析的精确检测方法。得到精确稳定的检测结果。最后实验结果表明与经典的形态学检测算法及其他算法相比,该技术能更有效地检测弱小目标,具有更高的鲁棒性。  相似文献   
10.
Anthropogenic influences, including climate change, are increasing river temperatures in northern and temperate regions and threatening the thermal habitats of native salmonids. When river temperatures exceed the tolerance levels of brook trout and Atlantic salmon, individuals exhibit behavioural thermoregulation by seeking out cold‐water refugia – often created by tributaries and groundwater discharge. Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery was used to map cold‐water anomalies along a 53 km reach of the Cains River, New Brunswick. Trout and salmon parr did not use all identified thermal anomalies as refugia during higher river temperature periods (>21°C). Most small‐bodied trout (8–30 cm) were observed in 80% of the thermal anomalies sampled. Large‐bodied trout (>35 cm) required a more specific set of physical habitat conditions for suitable refugia, that is, 100% of observed large trout used 30% of the anomalies sampled and required water depths >65 cm within or adjacent to the anomaly. Densities of trout were significantly higher within anomalies compared with areas of ambient river temperature. Salmon parr were less aligned with thermal anomalies at the observed temperatures, that is, 59% were found in 65% of the sampled anomalies; and densities were not significantly different within/ outside anomalies. Salmon parr appeared to aggregate at 27°C, and after several events over 27°C variability in aggregation behaviour was observed – some fish aggregated at 25°C, others did not. We stipulate this is due to variances of thermal fatigue. Habitat suitability curves were developed for velocity, temperature, depth, substrate, and deep water availability to characterize conditions preferred by fish during high‐temperature events. These findings are useful for managers as our climate warms, and can potentially be used as a tool to help conserve and enhance thermal refugia for brook trout and Atlantic salmon in similar systems.  相似文献   
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