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1.
Accurate and timely network traffic measurement is essential for network status monitoring, network fault analysis, network intrusion detection, and network security management. With the rapid development of the network, massive network traffic brings severe challenges to network traffic measurement. However, existing measurement methods suffer from many limitations for effectively recording and accurately analyzing big-volume traffic. Recently, sketches, a family of probabilistic data structures that employ hashing technology for summarizing traffic data, have been widely used to solve these problems. However, current literature still lacks a thorough review on sketch-based traffic measurement methods to offer a comprehensive insight on how to apply sketches for fulfilling various traffic measurement tasks. In this paper, we provide a detailed and comprehensive review on the applications of sketches in network traffic measurement. To this end, we classify the network traffic measurement tasks into four categories based on the target of traffic measurement, namely cardinality estimation, flow size estimation, change anomaly detection, and persistent spreader identification. First, we briefly introduce these four types of traffic measurement tasks and discuss the advantages of applying sketches. Then, we propose a series of requirements with regard to the applications of sketches in network traffic measurement. After that, we perform a fine-grained classification for each sketch-based measurement category according to the technologies applied on sketches. During the review, we evaluate the performance, advantages and disadvantages of current sketch-based traffic measurement methods based on the proposed requirements. Through the thorough review, we gain a number of valuable implications that can guide us to choose and design proper traffic measurement methods based on sketches. We also review a number of general sketches that are highly expected in modern network systems to simultaneously perform multiple traffic measurement tasks and discuss their performance based on the proposed requirements. Finally, through our serious review, we summarize a number of open issues and identify several promising research directions.  相似文献   
2.
Today, utility meters for water are tested for measurement behavior at stable operating conditions at specified flow rates as part of the approval process. The measurement error that occurs during start and stop or when changing between flow rates may not be taken into account. In addition, there are new technologies whose measuring behavior under real-world conditions is only known to a limited extend. To take these facts into account, a new method has been developed and tested to determine the measurement behavior of water meters under dynamic load profiles as they occur in the real application. For this purpose, a test rig for flow rate measurement was extended by a cavitation nozzle apparatus and the generation of dynamic load profiles was validated. For the cavitation nozzles used, possible factors influencing the flow rate, such as temperature and purity of the water as well as the upstream pressure were investigated. Using different types of domestic water meters, the applicability of the dynamic test procedure was demonstrated and the measurement behavior of the meters was characterised.  相似文献   
3.
Engineering new glass compositions have experienced a sturdy tendency to move forward from (educated) trial-and-error to data- and simulation-driven strategies. In this work, we developed a computer program that combines data-driven predictive models (in this case, neural networks) with a genetic algorithm to design glass compositions with desired combinations of properties. First, we induced predictive models for the glass transition temperature (Tg) using a dataset of 45,302 compositions with 39 different chemical elements, and for the refractive index (nd) using a dataset of 41,225 compositions with 38 different chemical elements. Then, we searched for relevant glass compositions using a genetic algorithm informed by a design trend of glasses having high nd (1.7 or more) and low Tg (500 °C or less). Two candidate compositions suggested by the combined algorithms were selected and produced in the laboratory. These compositions are significantly different from those in the datasets used to induce the predictive models, showing that the used method is indeed capable of exploration. Both glasses met the constraints of the work, which supports the proposed framework. Therefore, this new tool can be immediately used for accelerating the design of new glasses. These results are a stepping stone in the pathway of machine learning-guided design of novel glasses.  相似文献   
4.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(12):16730-16736
Recently, all-inorganic cesium lead-halide perovskites have shown their promise for light emission applications, due to the excellent optical performance. Herein, we report that the initially nonphosphorescent undoped lead-halide Cs4PbBr6 single crystals (SCs) exhibit an ultralong phosphorescence emission under X-ray excitation at low temperatures. It is shown that the dramatic change has been taken place in radioluminescence spectra and the broad-band emission gradually appeared with the decrease of temperature. Below 210 K, the radioluminescence spectra can be deconvoluted into one narrow peak located at 530 nm and two broad peaks centered at 595 nm and 672 nm respectively. Subsequently, the time-dependent radioluminescence spectra in undoped lead-halide Cs4PbBr6 SCs were investigated. The ultralong phosphorescence emission can persist over 120 min at 70 K. We consider that ultralong phosphorescence originates from defect-related emission. To the best of our knowledge, our finding is the first time that undoped Cs4PbBr6 SCs exhibit the phosphorescence emission, which will offer a paradigm to motivate revolutionary applications on perovskite.  相似文献   
5.
To provide a basis for the high-temperature oxidation of ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs), the oxidation behavior of Zr3[Al(Si)]4C6 and a novel Zr3[Al(Si)]4C6-ZrB2-SiC composite at 1500 °C were investigated for the first time. From the calculation results, the oxidation kinetics of the two specimens follow the oxidation dynamic parabolic law. Zr3[Al(Si)]4C6 exhibited a thinner oxide scale and lower oxidation rate than those of the composite under the same conditions. The oxide scale of Zr3[Al(Si)]4C6 exhibited a two-layer structure, while that of the composite exhibited a three-layer structure. Owing to the volatilization of B2O3 and the active oxidation of SiC, a porous oxide layer formed in the oxide scale of the composite, resulting in the degradation of its oxidation performance. Furthermore, the cracks and defects in the oxide scale of the composite indicate that the reliability of the oxide scale was poor. The results support the service temperature of the obtained ceramics.  相似文献   
6.
7.
Limiting current density at different temperatures, backpressures, and balance gases can be used to separate molecular diffusion resistance, Knudsen diffusion resistance and local transport resistance of membrane electrode assembly (MEA). However, the measurement of limiting current density has no unified protocol. The diverse choices in the literature, either in the control of current or voltage or in the atmosphere like relative humidity and O2 concentrations, make it difficult to compare the results and identify the true bottleneck hindering the mass transport. In this work, the current-voltage curves obtained by current scanning/stepping and voltage scanning/stepping methods under dilute O2 of different concentrations and a wide range of relative humidity were measured and analyzed systematically. It is found that the voltage stepping method is superior to the other three ways of control for the reliable determination of the limiting current density. Aided with simultaneous electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, the limiting current density can be determined with pinpoint accuracy. When the limiting current density is just used to qualitatively evaluate different MEA, the voltage scanning method can be used instead for its high time efficiency. The selection of the atmosphere also plays an important role in suppressing the distortion from excessive water and reducing the spurious contribution from proton conduction resistance. It is found that O2 concentrations at 0.5 vol% and relative humidity at 90% can give the best estimation of O2 transport resistance in membrane electrode assembly.  相似文献   
8.
Recent advancements in isolation and stacking of layered van der Waals materials have created an unprecedented paradigm for demonstrating varieties of 2D quantum materials. Rationally designed van der Waals heterostructures composed of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and few-layer hBN show several unique optoelectronic features driven by correlations. However, entangled superradiant excitonic species in such systems have not been observed before. In this report, it is demonstrated that strong suppression of phonon population at low temperature results in a formation of a coherent excitonic-dipoles ensemble in the heterostructure, and the collective oscillation of those dipoles stimulates a robust phase synchronized ultra-narrow band superradiant emission even at extremely low pumping intensity. Such emitters are in high demand for a multitude of applications, including fundamental research on many-body correlations and other state-of-the-art technologies. This timely demonstration paves the way for further exploration of ultralow-threshold quantum-emitting devices with unmatched design freedom and spectral tunability.  相似文献   
9.
Monitoring the temperature in liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks on ships is important for the safety of maritime navigation. In addition, accurate temperature measurement is also required for commercial transactions. Temperature and pressure define the density of liquid hydrogen, which is directly linked to trading interests. In this study, we developed and tested a liquid hydrogen temperature monitoring system that uses platinum resistance sensors with a nominal electrical resistance of approximately 1000 Ω at room temperature, PT-1000, for marine applications. The temperature measurements were carried out using a newly developed temperature monitoring system under different pressure conditions. The measured values are compared with a calibrated reference PT-1000 resistance thermometer. We confirm a measurement accuracy of ±50 mK in a pressure range of 0.1 MPa–0.5 MPa.  相似文献   
10.
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has created a great demand for a better understanding of the spread of viruses in indoor environments. A novel measurement system consisting of one portable aerosol-emitting mannequin (emitter) and a number of portable aerosol-absorbing mannequins (recipients) was developed that can measure the spread of aerosols and droplets that potentially contain infectious viruses. The emission of the virus from a human is simulated by using tracer particles solved in water. The recipients inhale the aerosols and droplets and quantify the level of solved tracer particles in their artificial lungs simultaneously over time. The mobile system can be arranged in a large variety of spreading scenarios in indoor environments and allows for quantification of the infection probability due to airborne virus spreading. This study shows the accuracy of the new measurement system and its ability to compare aerosol reduction measures such as regular ventilation or the use of a room air purifier.  相似文献   
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