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1.
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the manufacture of polyvinylchloride plastics and has been associated with concerns regarding male reproductive toxicity. In this study, we hypothesized that maternal exposure to DEHP induces transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset adverse reproductive outcomes through the male germline in the F1, F2, and F3 generations of male offspring. Pregnant rats were treated with 5 or 500 mg of DEHP/kg/day through gavage from gestation day 0 to birth. The offspring body weight, anogenital distance (AGD), anogenital index (AGI), sperm count, motility, and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) were measured for all generations. Methyl-CpG binding domain sequencing was performed to analyze sperm DNA methylation status in the F3. DEHP exposure at 500 mg/kg affected AGD, AGI, sperm count, mean DFI, and %DFI in the F1; AGD, sperm count, and mean DFI in the F2; and AGD, AGI, mean DFI, and %DFI in the F3. DEHP exposure at 5 mg/kg affected AGD, AGI, sperm count, and %DFI in the F1; sperm count in the F2; and AGD and AGI in F3. Compared with the control group, 15 and 45 differentially hypermethylated genes were identified in the groups administered 5 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg DEHP, respectively. Moreover, 130 and 6 differentially hypomethylated genes were observed in the groups administered 5 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg DEHP. Overall, these results demonstrated that prenatal exposure to DEHP caused transgenerational epigenetic effects, which may explain the observed phenotypic changes in the male reproductive system.  相似文献   
2.
As G protein coupled receptors, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) have recently gained attention for their role in modulating inflammatory bone loss diseases. Notably, in murine studies inhibiting S1PR2 by its specific inhibitor, JTE013, alleviated osteoporosis induced by RANKL and attenuated periodontal alveolar bone loss induced by oral bacterial inflammation. Treatment with a multiple S1PRs modulator, FTY720, also suppressed ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis, collagen or adjuvant-induced arthritis, and apical periodontitis in mice. However, most previous studies and reviews have focused mainly on how S1PRs manipulate S1P signaling pathways, subsequently affecting various diseases. In this review, we summarize the underlying mechanisms associated with JTE013 and FTY720 in modulating inflammatory cytokine release, cell chemotaxis, and osteoclastogenesis, subsequently influencing inflammatory bone loss diseases. Studies from our group and from other labs indicate that S1PRs not only control S1P signaling, they also regulate signaling pathways induced by other stimuli, including bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), bile acid, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), IL-6, and vitamin D. JTE013 and FTY720 alleviate inflammatory bone loss by decreasing the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, reducing chemotaxis of inflammatory cells from blood circulation to bone and soft tissues, and suppressing RANKL-induced osteoclast formation.  相似文献   
3.
To theoretically explore amorphous materials with a sufficiently low dielectric loss, which are essential for next-generation communication devices, the applicability of a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation employing an external alternating electric field was examined using alkaline silicate glass models. In this method, the dielectric loss is directly evaluated as the phase shift of the dipole moment from the applied electric field. This method enabled us to evaluate the dielectric loss in a wide frequency range from 1 GHz to 10 THz. It was observed that the dielectric loss reaches its maximum at a few THz. The simulation method was found to qualitatively reproduce the effects of alkaline content and alkaline type on the dielectric loss. Furthermore, it reasonably reproduced the effect of mixed alkalines on the dielectric loss, which was observed in our experiments on sodium and/or potassium silicate glasses. Alkaline mixing was thus found to reduce the dielectric loss.  相似文献   
4.
Increasing the dielectric loss capacity plays an important role in enhancing the electromagnetic absorption performance of materials. It remains a challenge to simultaneously introduce multiple types of dielectric losses in the material. In this work, we show that the atomic and interfacial dipole polarizations can be simultaneously enhanced by substituting N species into both carbon coating layers and bulk TiC lattices of a core-shell TiC@C material. Additionally, substitution of N species results more exposed TiC(111) facets and refines the TiC grain sizes in the bulk material, which is beneficial for enhancing the scattering of the external electromagnetic waves. The maximum reflection loss of the N substituted TiC@C material is measured as ?47.1 dB with an effective absorbing bandwidth of 4.83 GHz at 1.9 mm, which illustrates a valuable way to further tuning the electromagnetic absorption performance of this type of materials.  相似文献   
5.
In this work, a new type of FeSi/FeNi soft magnetic powder core (SMPC) was successfully fabricated by coating FeNi nanoparticles on the surface of FeSi micrometer powder. The effects of different contents of FeNi nanoparticles on the micromorphology, internal structures, and soft magnetic properties of SMPCs were studied. The results show that FeNi nanoparticles adhere to the surface of FeSi powder, which can effectively fill the air gap between FeSi powder and is beneficial to the compaction of the powder cores during the pressing process. Thus, the density of the SMPCs is increased. Compared to FeSi SMPCs, the comprehensive soft magnetic properties of FeSi/FeNi SMPCs have been greatly improved. When adding 15 wt% FeNi nanoparticles, the SMPCs exhibit excellent magnetic properties with high effective permeability (increased by 43.8 %) and low core loss (decreased by 22.1 %). The high performance FeSi/FeNi SMPCs prepared in this work are expected to be widely used in power choke coils, uninterruptible power supplies, and boosts and inverter inductors.  相似文献   
6.
The effect of heat loss on the syngas production from partial combustion of fuel-rich in a divergent two-layer burner is numerically studied using two-dimensional model with detailed kinetics GRI-Mech 1.2. Both the radiation and wall heat losses to the surrounding are considered in the computations. It is shown that two types heat losses have different effects on the syngas production. The radiation heat loss has significant effect on the syngas temperature and the syngas temperature is dropped as radiation heat loss is increased, but it has neglected effect on the reforming efficiency and methane conversion efficiency. The wall heat loss has a comprehensive effect on the syngas production. The wall heat loss not only reduces the conversion efficiency, but also significantly decreases the syngas temperature. The effect of wall heat loss becomes weak as the equivalence is increased. The reforming efficiency drops from 0.440 to 0.424 for equivalence ratio of 2 and mixture velocity of 0.17 m/s for the predictions between adiabatic wall and non-adiabatic conditions.  相似文献   
7.
One specific class of non-linear evolution equations, known as the Tzitzéica-type equations, has received great attention from a group of researchers involved in non-linear science. In this article, new exact solutions of the Tzitzéica-type equations arising in non-linear optics, including the Tzitzéica, Dodd–Bullough–Mikhailov and Tzitzéica–Dodd–Bullough equations, are obtained using the expa function method. The integration technique actually suggests a useful and reliable method to extract new exact solutions of a wide range of non-linear evolution equations.  相似文献   
8.
The evaluation of functional features of manufactured workpieces is based on GO- and NO-GO-test results, which are obtained by comparing measured geometric characteristics with nominal dimensions and tolerances specified by the designer. These geometrical specifications are based on a tolerancing system, which was originally defined for the function mating capability. Against the background of upcoming lots of other new functions (like reduction of flow resistance, light absorption, reduction of friction, diffraction of light, self-cleaning or mass transmission) are to be realized with our products – particularly by micro- and nano scaled features. If the verification process will deliver the prediction of the achievable degree of functionality, the usability of a part can be assessed more accurately and in consequence quality and economics can be improved. So, a new principle for tolerancing and verifying turns out to be necessary. In this paper the fundamental deficit of the actual tolerancing and specification systems GPS and ASME Y14.5 is derived and the path for enlarging the system by preposing a functional model is shown. To verify the functional capability of the workpieces an approach based on simulations done with the parameterized mathematical–physical model of the function is suggested. Advantages of this approach will be discussed and demonstrated by examples with microstructured inking rolls, crankshafts and injection valves.  相似文献   
9.
We report a simple processing method to simultaneously improve the efficiency and stability of organic solar cells (OSCs). Poly(4-styrene sulfonate)-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene (PEDOT:PSS), widely used as hole transport layer (HTL) in OSCs, tends to accelerate the degradation of devices because of its hygroscopic and acidic properties. In this regard, we have modified PEDOT:PSS to reduce its hygroscopic and acidic properties through a condensation reaction between PEDOT:PSS and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (PEGME) in order to improve the efficiency and stability of OSCs. As a result, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) increased by 21%, from 2.57% up to 3.11%. A better energy level alignment by the reduced work function of the modified PEDOT:PSS with a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) is considered the origin of the improved the efficiency. The half-life of OSCs with PEDOT:PSS modified with PEGME buffer layer also increased up to 3.5 times compared to that of devices with pristine PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.  相似文献   
10.
In this work, the grain boundaries composition of the polycrystalline CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) was investigated. A Focused Ion Beam (FIB)/lift-out technique was used to prepare site-specific thin samples of the grain boundaries interface of CCTO ceramics. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) systems were used to characterize the composition and nanostructure of the grain and grain boundaries region. It is known that during conventional sintering, discontinuous grain growth occurs and a Cu-rich phase appears at grain boundaries. This Cu-rich phase may affect the final dielectric properties of CCTO but its structure and chemical composition remained unknown. For the first time, this high-resolution FIB-TEM-STEM study of CCTO interfacial region highlights the composition of the phases segregated at grain boundaries namely CuO, Cu2O and the metastable phase Cu3TiO4.  相似文献   
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