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1.
In this article, pre-assembly hot-press pressure and thermal expansion effects in gas-diffusion layers (GDLs) are addressed to explore the practicalities of the constitutive model reported in the companion article. A facile technique is proposed to include deformation history dependent residual strain effects. The model is implemented in the numerical environment and compared with widely followed conventional models such as isotropic and orthotropic material models. With the normal and accelerated thermal expansion effects no significant variation in stresses or strains is reported with the compressible GDL model in contrast to the conventional incompressible form of the GDL model. The present work identifies the critical differences with advanced and extended variants of the model along with conventional GDL material models in terms of planar stress/strain distribution and the membrane response. Finally, the model is simulated for micro-cyclic stress loads of varying amplitudes that imitate the real working conditions of fuel cell. The inelastic energy dissipation in GDLs is predicted using the proposed model, which is utilized further to distinguish the safe (elastic) and unsafe (inelastic shakedown) operating limits. The inelastic collapse of GDLs is shown to be a active function of high amplitude micro-cyclic load with high initial clamping load.  相似文献   
2.
Today, utility meters for water are tested for measurement behavior at stable operating conditions at specified flow rates as part of the approval process. The measurement error that occurs during start and stop or when changing between flow rates may not be taken into account. In addition, there are new technologies whose measuring behavior under real-world conditions is only known to a limited extend. To take these facts into account, a new method has been developed and tested to determine the measurement behavior of water meters under dynamic load profiles as they occur in the real application. For this purpose, a test rig for flow rate measurement was extended by a cavitation nozzle apparatus and the generation of dynamic load profiles was validated. For the cavitation nozzles used, possible factors influencing the flow rate, such as temperature and purity of the water as well as the upstream pressure were investigated. Using different types of domestic water meters, the applicability of the dynamic test procedure was demonstrated and the measurement behavior of the meters was characterised.  相似文献   
3.
乡村产业中的化石能源设备逐渐被电能技术替代,引起了乡村负荷波动增大、部分时段产生集中高负荷的问题。为了解决以上问题,将低品位清洁能源应用至乡村的茶叶生产中,针对烘茶全过程的工艺要求提出了跨临界CO2热泵烘茶技术;并以某茶叶生产乡村为对象,对其代表台区的全年日用电量及产茶日负荷进行了分析,得出采用CO2热泵烘茶后其负荷得到大幅度削减,整体可降低至原负荷的39.6%~46.8%,峰值负荷与平时负荷的比值由原本的13.6降至5.4~6.2。跨临界CO2热泵应用至农产品生产中可有效缓解乡村供电压力。  相似文献   
4.
In this investigation, low-cement castables were prepared using 70% alumina grog aggregates obtained from crushed alumina brick waste. The aggregates were thermally treated at 1550 °C for 3 h. Four types of low-cement castables were prepared with various types of aggregates (alumina grog with or without thermal treatment) and fillers (with or without zircon addition), and they were evaluated in terms of their physical, thermal, and chemical properties. Microstructural analysis via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on the castables before and after slag attack. Compared to the other fabricated castables, the thermally treated alumina grog castables with zircon showed better physical properties, such as a higher bulk density, cold crushing strength, and modulus of rupture and a lower apparent porosity and water absorption. In addition, they had a higher positive linear thermal expansion, refractoriness under load, permanent linear change, and hot modulus of rupture. The results of the SEM with energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the prepared castables confirmed that the mullite and anorthite phases were predominant when zircon was not added and the zircon–mullite phase additionally appeared upon the incorporation of zircon. A quantitative elemental analysis via X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was employed to determine the composition of the castables. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the alumina grog castables had a high mullite and low anorthite content, and the thermally treated alumina grog had a high anorthite, low mullite, and high zircon content. The improvement in the mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of the castables with thermally treated alumina grog and added zircon can be attributed to the formation of the zircon–mullite phase with a low mullite phase content.  相似文献   
5.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(11):15056-15063
Hydrogen (H2) sensors based on metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) are promising for many applications such as a rocket propellant, industrial gas and the safety of storage. However, poor selectivity at low analyte concentrations, and independent response on high humidity limit the practical applications. Herein, we designed rGO-wrapped SnO2–Pd porous hollow spheres composite (SnO2–Pd@rGO) for high performance H2 sensor. The porous hollow structure was from the carbon sphere template. The rGO wrapping was via self-assembly of GO on SnO2-based spheres with subsequent thermal reduction in H2 ambient. This sensor exhibited excellently selective H2 sensing performances at 390 °C, linear response over a broad concentration range (0.1–1000 ppm) with recovery time of only 3 s, a high response of ~8 to 0.1 ppm H2 in a minute, and acceptable stability under high humidity conditions (e. g. 80%). The calculated detection limit of 16.5 ppb opened up the possibility of trace H2 monitoring. Furthermore, this sensor demonstrated certain response to H2 at the minimum concentration of 50 ppm at 130 °C. These performances mainly benefited from the special hollow porous structure with abundant heterojunctions, the catalysis of the doped-PdOx, the relative hydrophobic surface from rGO, and the deoxygenation after H2 reduction.  相似文献   
6.
目的研究蛋类礼盒包装结构的缓冲性能。方法以蛋类尺寸为基础,建立可发性聚乙烯(expandable polyethylene. EPE)缓冲单元结构和组合结构,进行静态仿真分析和实验验证,比较结构在形状、叠合层数、组合形式等参数变化时的载荷与位移。结果结构层数变化相同时,单元结构的极限载荷从143N增加到236 N,组合结构的极限载荷从224 N增加到476 N,均呈近线性增长。结论蛋类礼盒包装中,组合结构的承载能力优于单元结构,通过单元结构的组合,可满足不同蛋类的包装要求。  相似文献   
7.
Strain rate is not only an important measure to characterize the deformation property, but also an important parameter to analyze the dynamic mechanical properties of rock materials. In this paper, by using the SHPB test system improved with high temperature device, the dynamic compressive tests of sandstone at seven temperatures in the range of room temperature to 1000 °C and five impact velocities in the range of 11.0–15.0 m/s were conducted. Investigations were carried out on the influences of strain rate on dynamic compressive mechanical behaviors of sandstone. The results of the study indicate that the enhancement effects of strain rates on dynamic compressive strength, peak strain, energy absorption ratio of sandstone under high temperatures still exist. However, the increase ratios of dynamic compressive strength, peak strain, and energy absorption ratio of rock under high temperature compared to room temperature have no obvious strain rate effects. The temperatures at which the strain rates affect dynamic compressive strength and peak strain most, are 800, and 1000 °C, respectively. The temperatures at which the strain rates affect dynamic compressive strength and peak strain weakest, are 1000 °C, and room temperature, respectively. At 200 and 800 °C, the strain rate effect on energy absorption ratio are most significant, while at 1000 °C, it is weakest. There are no obvious strain rate effects on elastic modulus and increase ratio of elastic modulus under high temperatures. According to test results, the relationship formula of strain rate with high temperature and impact load was derived by internalizing fitting parameters. Compared with the strain rate effect at room temperature condition, essential differences have occurred in the strain rate effect of rock material under the influence of high temperature.  相似文献   
8.
The load applied to a machine tool feed drive changes during the machining process as material is removed. This load change alters the Coulomb friction of the feed drive. Because Coulomb friction accounts for a large part of the total friction the friction compensation control accuracy of the feed drives is limited if this nonlinear change in the applied load is not considered. This paper presents a new friction compensation method that estimates the machine tool load in real time and considers its effect on friction characteristics. A friction observer based on a Kalman filter with load estimation is proposed for friction compensation control considering the applied load change. A specially designed feed drive testbed that enables the applied load to be modified easily was constructed for experimental verification. Control performance and friction estimation accuracy are demonstrated experimentally using the testbed.  相似文献   
9.
金鑫城  孙浩睿 《发电技术》2020,41(2):137-205
泛在电力物联网是物联网在电力领域的具体体现,建设泛在电力物联网是推进"三型两网"建设的关键环节,也是实现能源转型的必要手段。阐述了泛在电力物联网的定义,从供电公司角度出发,根据北京经济技术开发区实际情况,讨论了依托地区特点的泛在电力物联网实施策略和实际应用场景,分析了可能遇到的问题。得出结论:随着泛在电力物联网的深入建设,供电公司能够为电力客户提供多元化服务,提高客户满意度;地市供电公司能够依托泛在电力物联网开展更多电力相关业务;泛在电力物联网的安全性、实用性、有效性是发展面临的首要问题。  相似文献   
10.
ABSTRACT

In this paper, we review some algebraic control system. Precisely, linear and bilinear systems on Euclidean spaces and invariant and linear systems on Lie groups. The fourth classes of systems have a common issue: to any class, there exists an associated subgroup. From this object, we survey the controllability property. Especially, from those coming from our contribution to the theory.  相似文献   
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