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1.
Colostrum is essential for good neonate health; however, it is not known whether different calves absorb the nutrients from colostrum equally well. In this study, the absorption of protein, IgG, and γ-glutamyl transferase was compared in newborn dairy bull calves for 1 wk after feeding colostrum from different sources. Thirty-five Holstein-Friesian bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups and fed colostrum within 4 h after birth. Group A calves (n = 12) were bottle fed colostrum from their own dam for 3 d. Colostrum from these group A cows was also used as foster cow colostrum for the group B calves (n = 12), such that each group A and B calf pair received identical colostrum from each milking of the respective group A dam (10% of birth weight per day). The group C calves (n = 11) were fed 1 bottle (2 L) of pooled colostrum and transition milk (referred to as pooled colostrum), as was the standard practice on the dairy farm. The pooled colostrum was collected from the other dairy cows on the farm 0 to 4 d postpartum and stored at 4°C for less than 12 h. Blood was sampled from calves before the first feeding and at 1, 2, 3, and 7 d after birth. Levels of total solids, total protein, and IgG were higher in the dam colostrum than in the pooled colostrum. At birth, there were no differences between the calf groups for any measurements, and all calves had very low IgG levels. After receiving colostrum, the glucose, plasma γ-glutamyl transferase, serum total protein, and IgG concentrations increased significantly in all calves. There were no differences in any blood measurements at any time point between the pairs of group A and group B calves that received colostrum from the same cow except for the IgG concentration 2 d after birth. However, the group A calves had a higher total serum protein level and IgG concentration than the group C calves for all the time points after the first feeding. The group B calves had a higher IgG concentration than the group C calves on d 1, 2, and 7 after birth. Compared with groups A and B, there was no difference in the proportion of calves in group C that failed to have passive immunity transferred adequately based on the IgG threshold (<10 g/L). Thus, the calves receiving identical colostrum from the same cow had the same levels of IgG, and even the pooled colostrum provided sufficient transfer of IgG as the calves were fed within 4 h after birth.  相似文献   
2.
Passive permeability is a key property in drug disposition and delivery. It is critical for gastrointestinal absorption, brain penetration, renal reabsorption, defining clearance mechanisms and drug-drug interactions. Passive diffusion rate is translatable across tissues and animal species, while the extent of absorption is dependent on drug properties, as well as in vivo physiology/pathophysiology. Design principles have been developed to guide medicinal chemistry to enhance absorption, which combine the balance of aqueous solubility, permeability and the sometimes unfavorable compound characteristic demanded by the target. Permeability assays have been implemented that enable rapid development of structure-permeability relationships for absorption improvement. Future advances in assay development to reduce nonspecific binding and improve mass balance will enable more accurately measurement of passive permeability. Design principles that integrate potency, selectivity, passive permeability and other ADMET properties facilitate rapid advancement of successful drug candidates to patients.  相似文献   
3.
北斗三星无源定位技术   总被引:6,自引:2,他引:4  
介绍了北斗双星定位系统的特点、功能、系统组成和工作原理,说明了北斗有源定位方式在应用方面的局限性。针对北斗有源定位方式不能无线电静默,和人们对具有无线电隐蔽性的卫星定位的需求,详细介绍一种北斗三星无源定位技术:包括工作原理、实现方法、定位精度分析和目前达到的定位精度。阐述了北斗三星无源定位技术的优点和应用形势。  相似文献   
4.
光纤布拉格光栅的无源温度补偿   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
分析了通过施加应变补偿光纤布拉格光栅(FBG)中心波长随温度漂移的原理,给出了一种新型的无源温度补偿的方法和相应的实验结果。该方法采用了两种不同热膨胀系数的金属,对光栅先施加预应变。在0-60℃范围内,中心波长仅偏移了0.02nm。  相似文献   
5.
目标被动式跟踪评述   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
刘春恒  梁彦  周东华 《现代雷达》2003,25(9):5-7,10
首先介绍了目标被动跟踪的发展状况,然后按照不同的量测源分别对现有的被动跟踪方法进行讨论,并给出了各种方法的适用范围和各自的优缺点。最后试探性地给出目标被动跟踪的发展趋势,及其需要解决的重点、难点问题。  相似文献   
6.
研制了一种带有无源辅助网络的全桥移相脉宽调制零压开关(FB PSPWMZVS)高精度磁铁稳流电源,并在电磁铁磁场测量中得到应用,其电流稳定度在8h内优于±1×10-4。  相似文献   
7.
The multihop optical network is the most appropriate solution to satisfy the increasing applications of Internet services. This paper extends the regular Kautz graph to one with multiple layers in order to produce more architectural variations. The connectivity between adjacent layers utilizes the systematic connection patterns of a regular Kautz graph. A routing algorithm based on its property is presented. Optical passive star (OPS) couplers are adopted to implement our new topologies. Three scheduling criteria that can solve the contention problem in the intermediate nodes are evaluated and compared in terms of their capability to improve the accessibility.  相似文献   
8.
微杯电子纸及其后加工制程   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
SiPix利用独特的微杯(Microcup)结构和顶部灌注封装技术,通过连续整卷高速涂布的制程成功地制造出高性能的双稳性、装填电泳微粒的电子纸。SiPix可提供下列两种规格形式任意的EPD卷式成品:(A)用于有源矩阵EPD和直接驱动产品的可剥离保护膜/已灌装及密封的Microcup/无图案导体膜夹层卷;及(P)用于无源矩阵的行导体膜/已灌装及密封的Microcup/列导体膜夹层卷。已经开发出将EPD卷制成不同的显示模块或产品的简单的后续加工制程。  相似文献   
9.
本文对连续波半导体激光器端面抽运的Fabry-Perot腔掺Yb3 双包层光纤激光器的自脉动输出行为进行了研究.发现低Q值腔光纤激光器具有两种形式的自脉动输出,一种是饱和吸收被动调Q产生的自脉冲,另一种是与光纤中的受激Raman散射(SRS)效应相对应的阵发性巨脉冲.通过提高光纤激光器谐振腔的Q值并选择合适的抽运功率,可以有效地减小输出功率的自脉动,获得稳定的连续波激光输出.  相似文献   
10.
LD抽运免调试谐振腔被动调Q的固体激光器   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6  
将免调试谐振腔应用于二极管抽运固体激光器 ,采用Cr4 + ∶YAG晶体被动调Q ,准连续二极管侧向非均匀抽运Nd∶YAG激光棒 ,传导冷却 ,KTP腔外倍频 ,具有结构紧凑、抗失调能力强的特点。获得了远场近似平顶高斯分布的激光输出 ,输出波长 0 5 3μm ,能量 5 2 2mJ pulse ,稳定性 0 5 % ,电 光转换效率 3 4 % ,脉宽~ 6ns,重复频率 10~ 4 0Hz,发散角 2 8mrad。  相似文献   
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