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1.
In a typical embedded CPU, large on-chip storage is critical to meet high performance requirements. However, the fast increasing size of the on-chip storage based on traditional SRAM cells makes the area cost and energy consumption unsustainable for future embedded applications. Replacing SRAM with DRAM on the CPU’s chip is generally considered not worthwhile because DRAM is not compatible with the common CMOS logic and requires additional processing steps beyond what is required for CMOS. However a special DRAM technology, Gain-Cell embedded-DRAM (GC-eDRAM)  [1], [2], [3] is logic compatible and retains some of the good properties of DRAM (small and low power). In this paper we evaluate the performance of a novel hybrid cache memory where the data array, generally populated with SRAM cells, is replaced with GC-eDRAM cells while the tag array continues to use SRAM cells. Our evaluation of this cache demonstrates that, compared to the conventional SRAM-based designs, our novel architecture exhibits comparable performance with less energy consumption and smaller silicon area, enabling the sustainable on-chip storage scaling for future embedded CPUs.  相似文献   
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《Ceramics International》2022,48(11):15207-15217
SCAPS solar cell simulation program was applied to model an inverted structure of perovskite solar cells using Cu-doped Ni1-xO thin films as hole transport layer. The Cu-doped Ni1-xO film were made by co-sputtering deposition under different deposition conditions. By increasing the amount of the Cu-dopant, the film crystallinity enhanced whereas the bandgap energy decreased. The transmittance of the thin films decreased significantly by increasing the sputtering power of copper. High quality, uniform, compact, and pin-hole free films with low surface roughness were achieved. The structural, chemical, surface morphology, optical, electrical, and electronic properties of the Cu doped Ni1-xO films were used as input parameters in the simulation of Pb-based (MAPbI3-xClx) and Pb-free (MAGeI3) perovskite solar cells. Simulation results showed that the performance of both Pb-based and Pb-free perovskite solar cell devices significantly enhanced with Cu-doped Ni1-xO film. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) for the Pb-free perovskite solar cell is 8.9% which is lower than the highest PCE of 17.5% for the Pb-based perovskite solar cell.  相似文献   
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Due to problems such as pores on surface-treated coatings, the corrosion resistance of pure titanium bipolar plates for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells can be further improved by increasing the corrosion resistance of pure titanium by using differential speed-rolling (DSR); however, these materials have not yet reached the standard requirements of bipolar plates (corrosion current density icorr<103 nA·cm?2). In this work, the corrosion resistance of pure titanium was improved by optimizing the DSR process while the strength was maintained. The best corrosion resistance of the DSR pure titanium was achieved when the roller speed ratio was 2, while icorr was 429 nA·cm?2 in a solution of 0.5 M H2SO4 and 2 mg/L HF at room temperature. The formability of the DSR pure titanium for bipolar plates was verified. The optimal holding pressure range was 6.8–7.0 kN.  相似文献   
6.
The introduction of catalyst on anode of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been an effective way to alleviate the carbon deposition when utilizing biogas as the fuel. A series of La0.6Sr0.4Co1-xNixO3-δ (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) oxides are synthesized by sol-gel method and used as catalysts precursors for biogas dry reforming. The phase structure of La0.6Sr0.4Co1-xNixO3-δ oxides before and after reduction are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The texture properties, carbon deposition, CH4 and CO2 conversion rate of La0.6Sr0.4Co1-xNixO3-δ catalysts are evaluated and compared. The peak power density of 739 mW cm?2 is obtained by a commercial SOFC with La0.6Sr0.4Co0.4Ni0.6O3-δ catalyst at 850 °C when using a mixture of CH4: CO2 = 2:1 as fuel. This shows a great improvement from the cell without catalyst for internal dry reforming, which is attributed to the formation of NiCo alloy active species after reduction in H2 atmosphere. The results indicate the benefits of inhibiting the carbon deposition on Ni-based anode through introducing the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.4Ni0.6O3-δ catalyst precursor. Additionally, the dry reforming technology will also help to convert part of the exhaust heat into chemical energy and improve the efficiency of SOFC system with biogas fuel.  相似文献   
7.
Development of efficient, low cost and multifunctional electrocatalysts for water splitting to harvest hydrogen fuels is a challenging task, but the combination of carbon materials with transition metal-based compounds is providing a unique and attractive strategy. Herein, composite systems based on cobalt ferrite oxide-reduced graphene oxide (Co2FeO4) @(rGO) using simultaneous hydrothermal and chemical reduction methods have been prepared. The proposed study eliminates one step associated with the conversion of GO into rGO as it uses direct GO during the synthesis of cobalt ferrite oxide, consequently rGO based hybrid system is achieved in-situ significantly, the optimized Co2FeO4@rGO composite has revealed an outstanding multifunctional applications related to both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen counterpart (HER). Various metal oxidation states and oxygen vacancies at the surface of Co2FeO4@rGO composites guided the multifunctional surface properties. The optimized Co2FeO4@rGO composite presents excellent multifunctional properties with onset potential of 0.60 V for ORR, an overpotential of 240 mV at a 20 mAcm?2 for OER and 320 mV at a 10 mAcm?2 for HER respectively. Results revealed that these multifunctional properties of the optimized Co2FeO4@ rGO composite are associated with high electrical conductivity, high density of active sites, crystal defects, oxygen vacancies, and favorable electronic structure arisinng from the substitution of Fe for Co atoms in binary spinel oxide phase. These surface features synergistically uplifted the electrocatalytic properties of Co2FeO4@rGO composites. The multifunctional properties of the Co2FeO4@ rGO composite could be of high interest for its use in a wide range of applications in sustainable and renewable energy fields.  相似文献   
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This article provides a critical assessment of H2 from the standpoint of more widespread use as a sustainable fuel for Indian mobility applications in the global context. The potential techno-economic advantages of utilizing H2 for automobiles rather than battery electric vehicles or conventional internal combustion engine vehicles are emphasized. The present assessment demonstrates that H2 production, storage, and distribution costs are the primary challenges, and a significant improvement is still necessary for H2 to compete either against the internal combustion engine vehicle or the battery electric vehicle to win the race, arguably. The secondary challenges have also been demonstrated, which include the cost of the fuel cell stack and the modifications associated with internal combustion engine vehicles, as well as regulatory and safety concerns, which impede the widespread usage of H2. It is critical that policy-making for sustainable mobility in India is possible with the aid of a National H2 Energy Road-Map. This in turn can achieve a cost target of $0.5/kg for H2.  相似文献   
9.
High-temperature water electrolysis through solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) will play a key role in building a hydrogen economy in the future. However, the delamination between the air electrode and the electrolyte remains a critical issue to be addressed. Previously, it was hypothesized that Co migration may improve the catalytic activity of the SrZrO3 second phase at the LSCF-YSZ interface, eventually leading to the delamination. In this work, the LSCF-YSZ interfaces sintered at different temperatures were examined in detail. The activation behaviors of the LSCF electrodes upon application with electrolysis current were characterized under different conditions. Further, samples containing purposely added SrZrO3 interlayer with and without cobalt were fabricated and compared. The activation process is less significant for the sample with cobalt-added SrZrO3 interlayer than the sample with pure SrZrO3 layer, supporting the hypothesis that Co migration may lead to the activation behavior.  相似文献   
10.
Micro-cracks commonly occur on the catalyst layers (CLs) during the manufacturing of catalyst coated membranes (CCMs). However, the crack shape parameters effect on CLs in-plane (IP) electronic conductivity λs is not clear. In this work, the relationship between crack parameters and the λs is obtained based on the two-dimensional (2D) multiple-relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The LBM numerical model is validated by the normalized λs experiment applied on three different home-made cracked CLs, and the parameter study focus on crack width, length, quantity and phase angle are carried out. The results show that the decrease of λs has different sensitivity |k| to the parameters above. The crack width has little effect on λs decrease, and the |kw| is 0.038. However, crack arm length and quantity show more significant impact, which |kl| and |kN| are 0.753 and 0.725, respectively. The CLs with different crack propagation directions show significant anisotropy on λs, and a 53.53% decrease in λs is observed between 0° and 90° crack phase angle change. To manufacture a high electronic conductivity CL, crack initiation and migration mitigation are highly encouraged.  相似文献   
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