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1.
Mechanical behavior of a two-dimensional elastoplastic solid with rectilinear cracks is investigated. Plastic strip model is used to reduce plasticity problem to the equivalent linear elasticity formulation. Two realizations of the mixed mode plastic strip model are considered: in-line plastic strips as proposed by Becker and Gross [Int. J. Fract. 37 (1988) 163], and inclined plastic strips of Panasyuk and Savruk [Appl. Mech. Rev. 47 (1994) 151]. The effective mechanical response predictions are based on the procedure presented in Kachanov et al., [Appl. Mech. Rev. 47 (1994) 151]. Stress-strain relations are obtained for parallel and randomly oriented non-interacting cracks. Results are compared with known elastic solutions.  相似文献   
2.
Qualitative representation of spatial knowledge in two-dimensional space   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Various relation-based systems, concerned with the qualitative representation and processing of spatial knowledge, have been developed in numerous application domains. In this article, we identify the common concepts underlying qualitative spatial knowledge representation, we compare the representational properties of the different systems, and we outline the computational tasks involved in relation-based spatial information processing. We also describesymbolic spatial indexes, relation-based structures that combine several ideas in spatial knowledge representation. A symbolic spatial index is an array that preserves only a set of spatial relations among distinct objects in an image, called the modeling space; the index array discards information, such as shape and size of objects, and irrelevant spatial relations. The construction of a symbolic spatial index from an input image can be thought of as a transformation that keeps only a set of representative points needed to define the relations of the modeling space. By keeping the relative arrangements of the representative points in symbolic spatial indexes and discarding all other points, we maintain enough information to answer queries regarding the spatial relations of the modeling space without the need to access the initial image or an object database. Symbolic spatial indexes can be used to solve problems involving route planning, composition of spatial relations, and update operations.  相似文献   
3.
The earliest investigations on rubber elasticity, commencing in the 19th century, were necessarily limited to phenomenological interpretations. The realisation that polymers consist of very long molecular chains. commencing c. 1930, gave impetus to the molecular theory of rubber elasticity (1932-). according to which the high deformability of an elastomer, and the elastic force generated by deformation, stem from the configurations accessible to long molecular chains. Theories of rubber elasticity put forward from 1934-1946 relied on the assumption that the junctions of the rubber network undergo displacements that are affine in macroscopic strain. The theory of James and Guth (1947) dispensed with this premise, and demonstrated instead that the mean positions of the junctions of a ‘phantom’ network consisting of Gaussian chains devoid of material properties are affine in the strain. The vital significance of the distinction between the actual distribution of chain vectors in a network and their distribution if the junctions would be fixed at their mean positions went unnoticed for nearly 30 years. Experimental investigations, commencing with the incisive work of Gee in 1946. revealed large departures from the relationship of stress to strain predicted by the theories cited. This discrepancy prompted extensive studies, theoretical and experimental, during succeeding years. Inquiry into the fundamentals of polymer networks, formed for example by interlinking very long polymer molecules, exposed the need to take account of network imperfections, typically consisting of chains attached at only one end to a network junction. Various means were advocated to make corrections for these imperfections. The cycle rank ζ of the network has been shown (1976) to be the fundamental measure of its connectivity, regardless of the junction functionality and pattern of imperfections. Often overlooked is the copious interpenetration of the chains comprising typical elastomeric networks. Theories that attempt to represent such networks on a lattice are incompatible with this universal feature. Moreover, the dense interpenetration of chains may limit the ability of junctions in real networks to accommodate the fluctuations envisaged in the theory of phantom networks. It was suggested in 1975 that departures from the form predicted for the elastic equation of state are due to constraints on the fluctuations of junctions whose effect diminishes with deformation and with dilation. Formulation of a self-consistent theory based on this suggestion required recognition of the non-affine connection between the chain vector distribution function and the macroscopic strain in a real network, which may partake of characteristics of a phantom network in some degree. Implementation of the idea was achieved through postulation of domains of constraint affecting the equilibrium distribution of fluctuations of network junctions from their mean positions. This led in due course to a theory that accounts for the relationship of stress to strain virtually throughout the ranges of strain accessible to measurement. The theory establishes connections between structure and elastic properties. This is achieved with utmost frugality in arbitrary parameters.  相似文献   
4.
The satisfaction that a customer has with the construction product and construction services provided by a contractor has a direct influence on the customer’s willingness to select that contractor for future work. Labor and management working together have the opportunity to influence customer satisfaction. Activities at the contractor/craft worker level, the contractor/local union level, and the contractor association/local union level have the greatest potential to influence customer satisfaction. A precisely defined plan incorporating labor-management activities targeted at specific satisfaction factors will have the greatest likelihood of creating high customer satisfaction.  相似文献   
5.
6.
The authors investigated relationships between marijuana and inhalant use and several cultural and demographic factors in Anglo American and Hispanic American adolescents (N=1,094). Outcome measures assessed lifetime and 30-day marijuana and inhalant use. Predictors and covariates used in logistic regression analyses were region, grade, gender, knowledge, acculturation, familism, and parental monitoring. Hispanic Americans exhibited higher usage across all measures. In this group, high acculturation was associated with low marijuana, but high inhalant, use. Across all participants, positive family relations and parental monitoring were strongly associated with attenuated marijuana use hut only among those most knowledgeable about drugs. Familism and monitoring were not associated with diminished usage among the less knowledgeable. For inhalants, monitoring combined with high knowledge or high familism was associated with diminished usage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献   
7.
The present study applied a semiparametric mixture model to a sample of 284 low-income boys to model developmental trajectories of overt conduct problems from ages 2 to 8. As in research on older children, 4 developmental trajectories were identified: a persistent problem trajectory, a high-level desister trajectory, a moderate-level desister trajectory, and a persistent low trajectory. Follow-up analyses indicated that initially high and low groups were differentiated in early childhood by high child fearlessness and elevated maternal depressive symptomatology. Persistent problem and high desister trajectories were differentiated by high child fearlessness and maternal rejecting parenting. The implications of the results for early intervention research are discussed, with an emphasis on the identification of at-risk parent-child dyads. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献   
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9.
Construction productivity has been on the decline in the last decade. The results are presented on a survey of the Engineering News‐Record 400 largest contractors to obtain their views on where productivity improvements would most help and to compare the trends with a similar survey carried out in 1979. Data were collected on the general company characteristics of the responding contractors, and on the contractors' opinions on potential areas for productivity improvement in the office and in the field. Findings indicate that immediate research should concentrate on improving marketing practices, planning and scheduling, labor‐management relations, site supervision, industrialized building systems, equipment policy and engineering design; and that governmental regulations have lost the immediate urgency attached to them in 1979.It is also recommended that similar surveys be conducted every 3 to 4 years to identify new trends and to steer research in the appropriate direction.  相似文献   
10.
近年来,随着信息时代社会的日新月异,高等教育事业驶入快速发展的轨道,社会对高校的关注度越来越高,高校间的竞争越来越激烈,在这种生存环境下,如何加强高校和校外社会媒体的关系,扩大高校的社会形象和知名度,提高高校的品牌价值和竞争力,已经成为新时期摆在众多高校面前的一个崭新课题。本文将公共关系这一重要的现代理论嫁接在高等学校,以跨学科的眼光和思路来探讨当前高校媒体公关存在的问题,并提出相应的对策,希望对新形势下开展高校媒体公关提供一定的参考。  相似文献   
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