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1.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(22):32973-32985
Multilayer structure design is one of the most promising methods for improving the comprehensive performance of AlCrN-based hard coatings applied to cutting tools. In this study, four types of AlCrSiN/AlCrVN/AlCrNbN multilayer coatings, with different modulated thicknesses, were deposited to investigate their microstructure, mechanical, tribological, and oxidizing properties. All multilayer coatings exhibited grain growth along the crystallographic plane of (200) with a NaCl-type face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. The results show that, as the modulation thickness decreases from ~35 nm to ~10 nm, (1) the grain refinement effect is increasingly evident; (2) all multilayer coatings show a hardness of >30 GPa and an elastic modulus of >300 GPa. Both the ability to resist elastic strain to failure and the plastic deformation of multilayer coatings increase. In addition, their resistance to cracking reduces; (3) the wear rates of these multilayer coatings reduce successively from 1.78 × 10?16 m3 N?1 m?1 to 7.7 × 10?17 m3 N?1 m?1. This is attributed to an increase in self-lubricating VOx and a decrease in adhesives from the counterparts; (4) the best high-temperature oxidation resistance was obtained for the multilayer coating with a modulated thickness of ~15 nm.  相似文献   
2.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(15):21773-21780
In this work, Ni/TiC composites were synthesized by the laser cladding technique (LCT). A scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), microhardness meter, electrochemical workstation, and friction and wear tester examined the microstructure, surface morphology, phase structure, microhardness, wear, and corrosion resistances of the Ni/TiC composites. These results indicated the Ni/40TiC composite contained finer equiaxed crystals than the Ni and Ni/20TiC composites. In addition, numerous TiC particles in the Ni/40TiC composite impeded growth of the nickel crystals, which resulted in the fine microstructure of the Ni/40TiC composite. The Ni, Ni/20TiC, and Ni/40TiC composites exhibited face-centered cubic (f c c) lattices. The average microhardness values of the Ni/20TiC and Ni/40TiC composites were approximately 748 HV and 851 HV, respectively. The Ni/40TiC composite had the lowest friction coefficient (0.43) among all three coatings, and only some shallow scratches appeared on the surface of the Ni/40TiC composite. The corrosion potential (E) of Ni/40TiC exceeded the Ni/20TiC composite, and both were larger than the Ni composite, which indicated the Ni/40TiC composite had outstanding corrosion resistance and the Ni composite had poor corrosion resistance. The corrosion current densities (i) of Ni, Ni/20TiC, and Ni/40TiC composites were 5.912, 4.405, and 3.248 μA/cm2, respectively.  相似文献   
3.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(8):10601-10612
Using MgC2O4, Mg powders as raw materials and Ni(NO3)2?6H2O as a catalyst, CNTs/MgO composite powders were prepared by a catalytic combustion synthesis method. The CNTs/MgO composite powders were characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FESEM/EDS and HRTEM. The effects of catalyst content on the degree of graphitization and aspect ratio of the CNTs in composite powders were investigated. Moreover, the thermal shock resistance of low-carbon Al2O3–C refractories after adding the composite powder was investigated. The results indicated that the CNTs prepared with 1 wt% Ni(NO3)2?6H2O addition had a higher degree of graphitization and aspect ratio. In particular, the aspect ratio could reach approximately 200. The growth mechanism of hollow bamboo-like CNTs in the composite powders was proven to be a V-L-S mechanism. The thermal shock resistance of Al2O3–C samples could be improved significantly after adding CNTs/MgO composite powders. In particular, compared with CM0, the residual strength ratio of Al2O3–C samples with added 2.5 wt% composite powders could be increased 63.9%.  相似文献   
4.
In order to reveal the mechanism of water fog explosion suppression and research the combined effect of water fog and obstacle on hydrogen/air deflagration, multiple sets of experiments were set up. The results show that the instability of thermal diffusion under lean combustion conditions is the main influencing factor of hydrogen/air flame surface instability, and the existence of water fog will aggravate the hydrogen/air flame surface instability. When obstacle is not considered, 8 μm, 15 μm, 30 μm water fog can significantly reduce the flame velocity and explosion overpressure of hydrogen/air, 45 μm fine water fog plays the opposite role. When considering the relative position of the water fog release position and the obstacle, the 8 μm, 15 μm, 30 μm water fog has almost no suppression effect when released near the obstacle, but a significant suppression effect occur, when using the 45 μm water fog. In the field of theoretical research, the research results not only provide an experimental basis for the fine water fog to reduce the consequences of hydrogen explosion accidents, and the optimal diameter range used by the water fog, but also provide experimental reference for the numerical simulation of hydrogen/air explosion suppression in semi-open space, and promote the development of hydrogen explosion suppression theory. In terms of engineering applications, this study can provide a theoretical basis for the layout of fire fighting equipment in the engine room of nuclear power plants or hydrogen-powered ships.  相似文献   
5.
Mangiferin (MGF) is a phenolic compound isolated from mango, but its poor solubility significantly limits its use. In this study, MGF was embedded into the inner aqueous phase of W1/O/W2 emulsions. Firstly, the dissolution method of MGF was determined. MGF remained stable in solution with pH 13 at 30 min, and its solubility reached 10 mg mL−1. When the pH of MGF solutions was adjusted from pH 13 to pH 6, MGF did not immediately crystallise, providing sufficient time to construct the MGF-loaded W1/O/W2 emulsions. Subsequently, the MGF-loaded W1/O/W2 emulsions were constructed using polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and calcium caseinate (CAS). The formation and stability of the W1/O/W2 emulsions were investigated. The MGF-loaded W1/O/W2 emulsions stabilised with 1% PGPR and 1% – 3% CAS exhibited a low viscosity, limited loading capacity, and poor stability. Conversely, the MGF-loaded W1/O/W2 emulsions stabilised by 3%PGPR–3%CAS exhibited optimal loading capacity (encapsulation efficiency = 95.31% and loading efficiency = 0.91%) and stability, which was attributed to the fact that high viscosity and gel state retarded the migration of inner aqueous phase. These results indicated that the W1/O/W2 emulsions stabilised by PGPR and CAS may be a potential alternative for encapsulating mangiferin.  相似文献   
6.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(6):8297-8305
Pure and Sn/Fe co-doped (0.2 at.% Sn and 0.6 at.% Fe, 0.6 at.% Sn and 0.2 at.% Fe, 1.0 at.% Sn and 1.0 at.% Fe) TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via a sol-gel method and subsequently calcined at different temperatures. Furthermore, the particles were analyzed by TG-DSC, XRD, TEM, HRTEM, EDS, SAED and UV–Vis for investigating the influences of dopant and calcination temperature on the thermal effect, composition, morphology, energy band gap (Eg) and the degradation efficiency of methyl orange (MO) under various light irradiations respectively. Results indicated that Sn/Fe co-doping inhibited the crystallization transformation from anatase to rutile phase of TiO2 and decreased the Eg. The increased calcination temperature and Sn/Fe co-doped effect brought about the abnormal grain growth of TiO2 nanoparticles. 0.6 at.% Sn/0.2 at.% Fe and 1.0 at.% Sn/1.0 at.% Fe co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles presented better photocatalytic performance than pure and 0.2 at.% Sn/0.6 at.% Fe co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light irradiation mainly due to the decreased Eg. On the contrary, 0.2 at.% Sn and 0.6 at.% Fe co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles calcined at 650 °C showed the most excellent photocatalytic performance under UV light irradiation, which was about twice as large as that of pure TiO2 possibly due to the formed hybrid structure of anatase and rutile phase as well as the h+-mediated decomposition pathway.  相似文献   
7.
ABSTRACT

It is important to perform neutron transport simulations with accurate nuclear data in the neutronics design of a fusion reactor. However, absolute values of large-angle scattering cross sections vary among nuclear data libraries even for well-examined nuclide of iron. Benchmark experiments focusing on large-angle scattering cross sections were thus performed to confirm the correctness of nuclear data libraries. The series benchmark experiments were performed at a DT neutron source facility, OKTAVIAN of Osaka University, Japan, by the unique experimental system established by the authors’ group, which can extract only the contribution of large-angle scattering reactions. This system consists of two shadow bars, target plate (iron), and neutron detector (niobium). Two types of shadow bars were used and four irradiations were conducted for one experiment, so that contribution of room-return neutrons was effectively removed and only large-angle scattering neutrons were extracted from the measured four Nb reaction rates. The obtained experimental results were compared with calculations for five nuclear data libraries including JENDL-4.0, JEFF.-3.3, FENDL-3.1, ENDF/B- VII, and recently released ENDF/B-VIII. It was found from the comparison that ENDF/B-VIII showed the best result, though ENDF/B-VII showed overestimation and others are in large underestimation at 14 MeV.  相似文献   
8.
To evaluate the separate impacts on human health and establish effective control strategies, it is crucial to estimate the contribution of outdoor infiltration and indoor emission to indoor PM2.5 in buildings. This study used an algorithm to automatically estimate the long-term time-resolved indoor PM2.5 of outdoor and indoor origin in real apartments with natural ventilation. The inputs for the algorithm were only the time-resolved indoor/outdoor PM2.5 concentrations and occupants’ window actions, which were easily obtained from the low-cost sensors. This study first applied the algorithm in an apartment in Tianjin, China. The indoor/outdoor contribution to the gross indoor exposure and time-resolved infiltration factor were automatically estimated using the algorithm. The influence of outdoor PM2.5 data source and algorithm parameters on the estimated results was analyzed. The algorithm was then applied in four other apartments located in Chongqing, Shenyang, Xi'an, and Urumqi to further demonstrate its feasibility. The results provided indirect evidence, such as the plausible explanations for seasonal and spatial variation, to partially support the success of the algorithm used in real apartments. Through the analysis, this study also identified several further development directions to facilitate the practical applications of the algorithm, such as robust long-term outdoor PM2.5 monitoring using low-cost light-scattering sensors.  相似文献   
9.
Cell surface and secreted proteins provide essential functions for multicellular life. They enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen co-translationally, where they mature and fold into their complex three-dimensional structures. The ER is populated with a host of molecular chaperones, associated co-factors, and enzymes that assist and stabilize folded states. Together, they ensure that nascent proteins mature properly or, if this process fails, target them for degradation. BiP, the ER HSP70 chaperone, interacts with unfolded client proteins in a nucleotide-dependent manner, which is tightly regulated by eight DnaJ-type proteins and two nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs), SIL1 and GRP170. Loss of SIL1′s function is the leading cause of Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS), an autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder. The development of animal models has provided insights into SIL1′s functions and MSS-associated pathologies. This review provides an in-depth update on the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying SIL1′s NEF activity and its role in maintaining ER homeostasis and normal physiology. A precise understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with the loss of SIL1 may allow for the development of new pharmacological approaches to treat MSS.  相似文献   
10.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(7):9413-9425
Artificial bone fillers are essentially required for repairing bone defects, and developing the fillers with synergistic biocompatibility and anti-bacterial activity persists as one of the critical challenges. In this work, a new agarose/gadolinium-doped hydroxyapatite filler with three-dimensional porous structures was fabricated. For the composite filler, agarose provides three-dimensional skeleton and endows porosity, workability, and high specific surface area, hydroxyapatite (HA) offers the biocompatibility, and the rare earth element gadolinium (Gd) acts as the antibacterial agent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy detection showed the doping of Gd in HA lattice with the formation of Gd-HA interstitial solid solution. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy imaging suggested chemical interactions between agarose and Gd-HA, and the physical structure of agarose was tuned by the Gd-doped HA. Cytotoxicity testing and alizarin red staining experiments using mouse pro-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) revealed remarkable bioactivity and osteogenic properties of the composite fillers, and proliferation and growth rates of the cells increased in proportion to Gd content in the composites. Antibacterial testing using the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and the gram-negative bacteria E. coli indicated promising antibacterial properties of the fillers. Meanwhile, the antibacterial properties of composite filles were enhanced with the increase of Gd content. The antibacterial fillers with porous structure and excellent physicomechanical properties show inspiring potential for bone defect repair.  相似文献   
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