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1.
ContextContext-oriented programming languages provide dedicated programming abstractions to define behavioral adaptations and means to combine those adaptations dynamically according to sensed context changes. Some of these languages feature programming abstractions to explicitly define interaction dependencies among contexts. However, the semantics of context activation and the meaning of dependency relations have been described only informally, which in some cases has led to incorrect specifications, faulty implementations and inconsistent system behavior.ObjectiveWith the aim of avoiding faulty implementations and inconsistencies during system execution, this paper proposes both a formal and run-time model of contexts, context activation and context interaction.MethodAs a formal and computational basis, we introduce context Petri nets, a model based on Petri nets, which we found to match closely the structure of contexts in context-oriented systems. The operational semantics of Petri nets permits the modeling of run-time context activations. Existing Petri net analyses allow us to reason about system properties. As validation, we carried out small and medium-sized case studies.ResultsIn the cases explored, context Petri nets served effectively as underlying run-time model to ensure that declared context interaction constraints remain consistent during context manipulation. Moreover, context Petri nets enabled us to analyze certain properties regarding the activation state of particular contexts.ConclusionContext Petri nets thus proved to be appropriate to encode and manage the semantics of context activation, both formally and computationally, so as to preserve the consistency of context-oriented systems.  相似文献   
2.
ContextThe artifact-centric methodology has emerged as a new paradigm to support business process management over the last few years. This way, business processes are described from the point of view of the artifacts that are manipulated during the process.ObjectiveOne of the research challenges in this area is the verification of the correctness of this kind of business process models where the model is formed of various artifacts that interact among them.MethodIn this paper, we propose a fully automated approach for verifying correctness of artifact-centric business process models, taking into account that the state (lifecycle) and the values of each artifact (numerical data described by pre and postconditions) influence in the values and the state of the others. The lifecycles of the artifacts and the numerical data managed are modeled by using the Constraint Programming paradigm, an Artificial Intelligence technique.ResultsTwo correctness notions for artifact-centric business process models are distinguished (reachability and weak termination), and novel verification algorithms are developed to check them. The algorithms are complete: neither false positives nor false negatives are generated. Moreover, the algorithms offer precise diagnosis of the detected errors, indicating the execution causing the error where the lifecycle gets stuck.ConclusionTo the best of our knowledge, this paper presents the first verification approach for artifact-centric business process models that integrates pre and postconditions, which define the behavior of the services, and numerical data verification when the model is formed of more than one artifact. The approach can detect errors not detectable with other approaches.  相似文献   
3.
Engineered transport of material at the nano/micro scale is essential for the manufacturing platforms of the future. Unlike conventional transport systems, at the nano/micro scale, transport has to be achieved in the presence of fundamental sources of uncertainty such as thermal noise. Remarkably, it is possible to extract useful work by rectifying noise using an asymmetric potential; a principle used by Brownian ratchets. In this article a systematic methodology for designing open-loop Brownian ratchet mechanisms that optimize velocity and efficiency is developed. In the case where the particle position is available as a measured variable, closed loop methodologies are studied. Here, it is shown that methods that strive to optimize velocity of transport may compromise efficiency. A dynamic programming based approach is presented which yields up to three times improvement in efficiency over optimized open loop designs and 35% better efficiency over reported closed loop strategies that focus on optimizing velocities.  相似文献   
4.
Crashworthiness simulation system is one of the key computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools for the automobile industry and implies two potential conflicting requirements: accuracy and efficiency. A parallel crashworthiness simulation system based on graphics processing unit (GPU) architecture and the explicit finite element (FE) method is developed in this work. Implementation details with compute unified device architecture (CUDA) are considered. The entire parallel simulation system involves a parallel hierarchy-territory contact-searching algorithm (HITA) and a parallel penalty contact force calculation algorithm. Three basic GPU-based parallel strategies are suggested to meet the natural parallelism of the explicit FE algorithm. Two free GPU-based numerical calculation libraries, cuBLAS and Thrust, are introduced to decrease the difficulty of programming. Furthermore, a mixed array and a thread map to element strategy are proposed to improve the performance of the test pairs searching. The outer loop of the nested loop through the mixed array is unrolled to realize parallel searching. An efficient storage strategy based on data sorting is presented to realize data transfer between different hierarchies with coalesced access during the contact pairs searching. A thread map to element pattern is implemented to calculate the penetrations and the penetration forces; a double float atomic operation is used to scatter contact forces. The simulation results of the three different models based on the Intel Core i7-930 and the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 580 demonstrate the precision and efficiency of this developed parallel crashworthiness simulation system.  相似文献   
5.
本文研究部分可观Petri网建模的离散事件系统的故障检测问题.针对现有的部分可观Petri网系统的在线故障诊断器存在故障诊断率较低的缺陷,本文提出了整数线性规划与广义互斥约束集成的部分可观Petri网系统在线故障诊断改进算法.假定部分可观Petri网系统的结构与初始标识为已知,故障被建模为不可观变迁.首先,算法需要观测接收事件序列,求解部分可观Petri网的整数线性规划问题,算法对系统的故障进行初步诊断.初步诊断为不确定诊断的情形,采用广义互斥约束的方法进行诊断.最后,通过离散事件系统实例分析,采用本文的算法,故障诊断率显著提高,验证了算法的有效性.  相似文献   
6.
C语言程序设计是一门重要的课程,却难学难教。教学方法优化十分必要。教学方法优化应从激发学生兴趣入手,采用循序渐进的方式,着重培养学生举一反三的编程能力,引导学生写出高质量的程序,并丰富考核方式。  相似文献   
7.
现代化建设事业的发展离不开计算机水平的提高。计算机编程语言作为人与机器沟通的桥梁,在计算机系统里有着非常重要的地位。本文从探讨计算机编程语言的概念出发,详细阐述了计算机编程语言所包含的内容和基本分类。接着笔者又深入分析了计算机输入设备的发展问题。最后,针对计算机编程语言和输入之间的联系问题,笔者做了观点性和理论性的论述分析。  相似文献   
8.
Whilst knowledge transfer is one of the most widely-claimed benefits of pair programming, little is known about how knowledge transfer is achieved in this setting. This is particularly pertinent for novice−expert constellations, but knowledge transfer takes place to some degree in all constellations. We ask “what does it take to be a good “expert” and how can a “novice” best learn from a more experienced developer?”. An in-depth investigation of video and audio excerpts of professional pair programming sessions using Interaction Analysis reveals: six teaching strategies, ranging from “giving direct instructions” to “subtle hints”; and challenges and benefits for both partners. These strategies are instantiations of some but not all teaching methods promoted in cognitive apprenticeship; novice articulation, reflection and exploration are not seen in the data. The context of pair programming influences the strategies, challenges and benefits, in particular the roles of driver and navigator and agile prioritisation which considers business value rather than educational progression. Utilising these strategies more widely and recognizing the challenges and benefits for both partners will help developers to maximise the benefits from pairing sessions.  相似文献   
9.
We develop a stochastic optimal control framework to address an important class of economic problems where there are discontinuities and a decision maker is able to undertake impulse controls in response to unexpected disturbances. Our contribution is two fold: (1) to develop a linear programming algorithm that produces a consistent approximation of the maximum value and optimal policy functions in the context of stochastic impulse controls; and (2) to illustrate the economic benefits of impulse controls optimized, using our framework, and calibrated to the population dynamics of a marine fishery. We contend that the framework has wide applicability and offers the possibility of higher economic pay-off for a wide-range of policy problems in the presence of discontinuities and adverse shocks.  相似文献   
10.
为了使接运公交网络更好地为轨道交通车站集散客流服务,将其作为研究对象,提出了接运公交网络的优化方法.考虑接运公交网络服务的需求量与接运公交供给密切相关、接运公交发车时刻与轨道交通车辆到站时刻构成有序衔接,以接运公交服务的乘客量最大化、接运乘客平均成本最小化、运营成本最小化为优化目标,构建了接运公交网络的多目标优化模型.为求解模型,设计了利用产生式方法获得Pareto解集的遗传-变邻域搜索算法.将设计的遗传-变邻域搜索算法与遗传算法、精确算法分别进行比较,通过算例验证了模型与算法的有效性.  相似文献   
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