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1.
Large urban parks can support a diverse bird community. However, the effects of variability among habitats and of park management on bird assemblages are poorly understood. We studied bird communities within the Yarkon Park, Tel Aviv, the largest urban park in Israel. We examined species richness, abundance and community composition across 20 locations that differ in levels of park management to identify habitat variables responsible for variation in bird richness and composition. Of 91 recorded bird species, 13 were aliens (14%), 4 were urban exploiters (4%), 54 were urban adapters (60%) and 20 were migrants (22%). Management had a significant effect on native bird richness and bird community structure varied among areas with different management regimes. Species richness of all the above species’ groups was lowest in intensively managed areas. Areas with intermediate levels of management had higher or equal richness compared to unmanaged areas. The majority of urban exploiters were found at all locations within the park reaching their highest abundances in intensively managed areas. Species richness of alien birds did not vary across levels of management. Bird species richness was negatively associated with lawn cover and with distance from nearest water source and was positively associated with the number of woody plant species. We suggest that urban parks should be designed such that the heterogeneity of native vegetation is preserved, if we aim to maintain native bird species diversity and minimize urban exploiter and alien species. When lightly managed or unmanaged, urban parks can retain large remnants of sub-natural habitats and can serve as important contributors to the conservation of native biodiversity within a large urban metropolis.  相似文献
2.
Though landscape vegetation in cities is human-mediated and often more diverse than that in surrounding environments, little work has been done to quantify ways that humans shape its composition. Our study identified important sources of variation in perennial vegetation composition within residential neighborhoods of Phoenix, AZ, USA. We hypothesized that neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) should offer some capacity for predicting landscape vegetation richness and abundance in both residential neighborhoods and embedded small city parks. As predicted, neighborhood vegetation richness increased across a gradient of low to high SES (R2=0.89) with the most variation explained by median family income (R2=0.86). In contrast, neighborhood vegetation abundance decreased across a gradient of increased time since disturbance (R2=0.62) with the most variation explained by median year of neighborhood development (R2=0.56). Median year of neighborhood development was also the dominant factor (R2=0.47) in explaining decreased park vegetation abundance across a gradient of increased time since disturbance. We were least able to predict park vegetation richness and could account for only 29% of variation using a SES gradient model with percent of population having a graduate education as the most dominant factor. In residential neighborhoods, we identified more than 3 times the number of landscape vegetation taxa than an earlier report and also found a higher percentage of native vegetation in parks than in surrounding neighborhoods. We discuss these different compositional patterns of perennial vegetation in neighborhoods and embedded parks in terms of their relationship to socioeconomic and disturbance gradients, and a conceptual framework of “top-down” and “bottom-up” human management influences. Our study intimates that residential vegetation composition in rapidly expanding, arid cities like Phoenix is largely driven by “luxury” and legacy effects and should be most rich in neighborhoods with the highest socioeconomic standing and most abundant in newest neighborhoods.  相似文献
3.
"核心期刊"在中国的异化一以建筑学科期刊为例   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
宇轩  之君 《时代建筑》2004,14(2):48-49
本文以建筑学科期刊为例,讨论了“核心期刊”在中国的异化现象源于我国学术评价方法的不科学和急功近利导致学术的浮躁,同时主管部门的官僚作风和形而上学的思维方式,造成了“核心期刊”被青睐和滥用。指出针对各个学科特点建立科学的学术评价体系是十分必要和迫切的。  相似文献
4.
It is known that habitats composed of spatially heterogeneous abiotic conditions provide a great diversity of potentially suitable niches for plant species. The scientific premises of landscape ecology suggest that, at a higher spatial level, also the composition and structure of the landscape mosaic, influences biotic processes and hence species richness. In this exploratory study we investigated if plant species diversity could be correlated with landscape structure and complexity indices which were based on Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Plant species data were derived from the 4 km×4 km resolution Flora Database of Flanders (i.e. northern Belgium). Plant species number within the 4 km×4 km grid cells was positively correlated with most of the landscape diversity indices whereas landscape fragmentation indices only affected the group of the threatened species. We found a gradient of increasing species richness beginning from the rural areas of Flanders over the suburban towards the urban areas. This gradient was mostly due to the higher number of alien plant species, warmth indicators and threatened species in urbanised areas. We conclude that, at least in the studied region, the effects of landscape changes on plant species diversity can be monitored and predicted on a large scale and over long periods of time using land cover data. Bottleneck in this kind of analyses remains the reliability of the land cover data and the availability and reliability of the biological data.  相似文献
5.
城市规划管理价值异化与对策   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
从价值异化现象引入思考,深入分析了城市规划管理体制本身存在的价值异化的缘由,提出价值回归本源的解题思路;并针对规划管理实践中的认识有限和问题无穷、必然性和偶然性、确定性和模糊性等矛盾进行了对策思考。  相似文献
6.
Similar to the process seen in invasion biology, urbanized environments lead to biotic homogenization with a few species, often alien, dominating the urban habitat. We investigated avian communities across an urban gradient in Pretoria (South Africa). We defined three urbanization zones: urban, suburban and semi-natural, based on land-cover. We conducted point counts of all species at each of 13 sites in these zones over a 4-month period. We found significantly more species in the semi-natural zone than the urban zone but abundance was significantly lower in semi-natural than urban. The increase in abundance was mainly as a result of alien species with the three most abundant species in the urban zone being all alien. Semi-natural contained fewer alien species than urban and significantly fewer than suburban. The Common Myna Acridotheres tristis was the only alien species that was observed in all three urbanization zones and was the second most abundant species in the suburban and urban zones. Our study supports the process of biotic homogenization, where an increase in alien species occurs in the urban compared to semi-natural zone. Although the suburban zone made an important contribution towards native bird abundance in a larger city environment, this environment was also an important environment for alien species, especially for the Common Myna.  相似文献
7.
城市异化与城市美的思索   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
关于城市的否定性描述实在是不胜枚举.这些描述所反映的同一个问题也就是“城市异化”。这是每一个城市居民都不同程度上感受得到但又被许多人所忽视的问题.这又是亟待学界深入研究与城市决策.管理者需加以解决的问题。  相似文献
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9.
运用BIM信息模型对郑州市滨河国际新城经南八路潮河大桥项目进行深化设计及项目管理。通过信息模型的建立进行异形塔柱模板的深化设计,绘制详尽的塔柱施工模板图纸,以信息模型指导塔柱施工测量放样,提高塔柱线形控制精度,减小测量偏差,使设计思路能详尽地表达给项目所有参建人员,提高工作效率。通过信息模型可以进行物料统计及施工进度的管理。  相似文献
10.
赵巍岩  王珣 《建筑师》2012,(1):81-83
新的词语被用来描绘新建筑,但建筑创作往往也受这些词语的控制。结果往往变成建筑为能被特定词语描述而存在.而与建筑本身所应承担的责任相背离。  相似文献
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