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Nowadays, customer orders with high product variety in small quantities are often received and requested for timely delivery. However, the order-picking process is a labour-intensive and costly activity to handle those small orders separately. In such cases, small orders are often grouped into batches so that two or more orders can be served at once to increase the picking efficiency and thus reduce the travel distance. In this paper, an order-picking operations system (OPOS) is proposed to assist the formulation of an order-picking plan and batch-handling sequence. The study integrates a mathematical model and fuzzy logic technique to divide the receiving orders into batches and prioritise the batch-handling sequence for picking, respectively. Through the proposed system, the order-picking process can be managed as batches with common picking locations to minimise the travel distance, and the batch-picking sequence can be determined as well. To demonstrate the use of the system, a case study in a third-party logistics warehouse is presented, and the result shows that both the order-picking activity and labour utilisation can be better organised.  相似文献   
9.
Pathline glyphs     
Visualization of pathlines is common and highly relevant for the analysis of unsteady flow. However, pathlines can intersect, leading to visual clutter and perceptual issues. This makes it intrinsically difficult to provide expressive visualizations of the entire domain by an arrangement of multiple pathlines, in contrast to well‐established streamline placement techniques. We present an approach to reduce these problems. It is inspired by glyph‐based visualization and small multiples: we partition the domain into cells, each corresponding to a downscaled version of the entire domain. Inside these cells, a single downscaled pathline is drawn. On the overview scale, our pathline glyphs lead to emergent visual patterns that provide insight into time‐dependent flow behavior. Zooming‐in allows us to analyze individual pathlines in detail and compare neighboring lines. The overall approach is complemented with a context‐preserving zoom lens and interactive pathline‐based exploration. While we primarily target the visualization of 2D flow, we also address the extension to 3D. Our evaluation includes several examples, comparison to other flow visualization techniques, and a user study with domain experts.  相似文献   
10.
Usually visualization is applied to gain insight into data. Yet consuming the data in form of visual representation is not always enough. Instead, users need to edit the data, preferably through the same means used to visualize them. In this work, we present a semi‐automatic approach to visual editing of graphs. The key idea is to use an interactive EditLens that defines where an edit operation affects an already customized and established graph layout. Locally optimal node positions within the lens and edge routes to connected nodes are calculated according to different criteria. This spares the user much manual work, but still provides sufficient freedom to accommodate application‐dependent layout constraints. Our approach utilizes the advantages of multi‐touch gestures, and is also compatible with classic mouse and keyboard interaction. Preliminary user tests have been conducted with researchers from bio‐informatics who need to manually maintain a slowly, but constantly growing molecular network. As the user feedback indicates, our solution significantly improves the editing procedure applied so far.  相似文献   
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