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1.
ContextA component-based software (CBS) system is a typical example of a composite component, which is composed of two or more atomic components. In the test of a CBS system, it is necessary to automatically generate expected results because they are compared with the actual results.ObjectiveThis paper proposes an automatic generation algorithm of expected results for the testing of a CBS system.MethodThe algorithm analyzes Input/Output (I/O) relationships of a CBS system to identify inputs that influence its outputs. Then, the algorithm uses test cases of atomic components for each input and automatically generates expected results. To evaluate the proposed approach, we compare the proposed approach with the other I/O relationship based approach via two case studies which are the CBS systems for guide robot. The comparison shows the effectiveness of our approach.ResultsTo verify effectiveness of the proposed approach, we measure the cost of manual generation of expected results for each case study. The costs are from 0.001 to 0.015 in the first case study, and are from 0.590 to 0.998 in the second case study.ConclusionThis proposed approach reduces the time-consuming and error-prone task which manually generates expected results for the testing of a CBS system.  相似文献   
2.
ContextDemonstrating compliance of critical systems with safety standards involves providing convincing evidence that the requirements of a standard are adequately met. For large systems, practitioners need to be able to effectively collect, structure, and assess substantial quantities of evidence.ObjectiveThis paper aims to provide insights into how practitioners deal with safety evidence management for critical computer-based systems. The information currently available about how this activity is performed in the industry is very limited.MethodWe conducted a survey to determine practitioners’ perspectives and practices on safety evidence management. A total of 52 practitioners from 15 countries and 11 application domains responded to the survey. The respondents indicated the types of information used as safety evidence, how evidence is structured and assessed, how evidence evolution is addressed, and what challenges are faced in relation to provision of safety evidence.ResultsOur results indicate that (1) V&V artefacts, requirements specifications, and design specifications are the most frequently used safety evidence types, (2) evidence completeness checking and impact analysis are mostly performed manually at the moment, (3) text-based techniques are used more frequently than graphical notations for evidence structuring, (4) checklists and expert judgement are frequently used for evidence assessment, and (5) significant research effort has been spent on techniques that have seen little adoption in the industry. The main contributions of the survey are to provide an overall and up-to-date understanding of how the industry addresses safety evidence management, and to identify gaps in the state of the art.ConclusionWe conclude that (1) V&V plays a major role in safety assurance, (2) the industry will clearly benefit from more tool support for collecting and manipulating safety evidence, and (3) future research on safety evidence management needs to place more emphasis on industrial applications.  相似文献   
3.
The relative sliding motion of two elastic bodies in contact induces wear process and contact shape evolution. In the case of a punch sliding on a substrate the transient process tends to a steady state for which the fixed contact stress and strain distribution develops in the contact zone. This state usually corresponds to a minimum of the wear dissipation power. The optimality conditions of the wear dissipation functional provide the contact stress distribution and the wear rate compatible with the rigid body punch motion. The present paper is aimed to extend the previous analyses [1], [2], [3], [4], [5] of steady state conditions to cases of periodic sliding of punch, assuming cyclic steady state conditions for both mechanical and thermal fields.  相似文献   
4.
In this work, we present a simultaneous untangling and smoothing technique for quadrilateral and hexahedral meshes. The algorithm iteratively improves a quadrilateral or hexahedral mesh by minimizing an objective function defined in terms of a regularized algebraic distortion measure of the elements. We propose several techniques to improve the robustness and the computational efficiency of the optimization algorithm. In addition, we have adopted an object-oriented paradigm to create a common framework to smooth meshes composed by any type of elements, and using different minimization techniques. Finally, we present several examples to show that the proposed technique obtains valid meshes composed by high-quality quadrilaterals and hexahedra, even when the initial meshes contain a large number of tangled elements.  相似文献   
5.
The supervision of a hybrid power plant, including solar panels, a gas microturbine and a storage unit operating under varying solar power profiles is considered. The Economic Supervisory Predictive controller assigns the power references to the controlled subsystems of the hybrid cell using a financial criterion. A prediction of the renewable sources power is embedded into the supervisor. Results deteriorate when the solar power is unsteady, owing to the inaccuracy of the predictions for a long-range horizon of 10 s. The receding horizon is switched between an upper and a lower value according to the amplitude of the solar power trend. Theoretical results show the relevance of horizon switching, according to a tradeoff between performance and prediction accuracy. Experimental results, obtained in a Hardware In the Loop (HIL) framework, show the relevance of the variable horizon approach. Power amplifiers allow us to simulate virtual components, such as a gas microturbine, and to blend their powers with that of real devices (storage unit, real solar panels). In this case, fuel savings, reaching 15%, obtained under unsteady operating conditions lead to a better overall performance of the hybrid cell. The overall savings obtained in the experiments amount to 12%.  相似文献   
6.
Progress in optimization algorithms and in computational hardware made deployment of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) and Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) possible to mechatronic applications. This paper aims to assess the computational performance of NMPC and MHE for rotational start-up of Airborne Wind Energy systems. The capabilities offered by an automatic code generation tool are experimentally verified on a real physical system, using a model comprising 27 states and 4 inputs at a sampling frequency of 25 Hz. The results show the feedback times less than 5 ms for the NMPC with more than 1500 variables.  相似文献   
7.
本文提出了一种多目标决策与强化学习相结合的改进的逼近于理想解的排序(technique for order preference similar to an ideal solution,TOPSIS)-Q算法,有效解决了自动发电控制(automatic generation control,AGC)总功率指令分配到风电、水电、火电等各类AGC机组的动态随机多目标优化问题.算法采用3个不同的目标Q值矩阵进行迭代更新,然后利用改进TOPSIS方法对Q值矩阵进行多目标决策处理,客观地给出各目标的动态最优权重系数,从而得到各状态-动作对的综合评价判据.IEEE标准两区域模型仿真研究验证了改进TOPSIS-Q算法在AGC机组功率多目标动态优化分配过程应用的可行性和有效性,在复杂随机扰动的环境中提高系统CPS性能的同时,有效降低了AGC机组调节成本和碳排放.  相似文献   
8.
C语言程序设计是一门重要的课程,却难学难教。教学方法优化十分必要。教学方法优化应从激发学生兴趣入手,采用循序渐进的方式,着重培养学生举一反三的编程能力,引导学生写出高质量的程序,并丰富考核方式。  相似文献   
9.
目的 为了有效对抗针对彩色图像的隐写方案,提出一种新的基于RGB格式的彩色图像隐写分析方法.方法 该方法中的特征包括通道内特征和通道间特征,首先从通道内差分平面上提取共生矩阵特征构成通道内特征集合,通道内特征可以有效捕捉到每一个颜色通道内差分系数之间的相关性;然后对通道与通道相互之间的二次差分平面上提取共生矩阵特征构成通道间特征集合,通道间特征可以捕捉到两两通道之间的相关性.在分类阶段利用遗传算法对多个子分类器进行权值优化,选择权值最优的若干个子分类器,通过众数投票进行集成判决,最终获得最佳的检测性能.结果 针对误检率,提出的通道共生特征比SPAM特征要降低4%~5%,而选择性集成分类器要比完全集成分类器要降低1%~2%.结论 该方法具有较低的时间复杂度,适合小嵌入率的RGB格式彩色图像,在整体性能上优于已有的隐写分析方法.  相似文献   
10.
胜任力是工作表现背后所蕴含的个人能力和行为总和,它能够有效反映出个体对于某一岗位的适应性及耦合度.运用行为事件访谈技术、质性研究及问卷调查方法构建了高校工会主席胜任力模型,研究结果显示个人特质、领导能力、协调变通能力、战略管理能力、服务关怀意识、学习创新能力是高校工会主席的核心胜任力.  相似文献   
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