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1.
A novel spiral micromixer with sinusoidal channel walls was designed to enhance the mixing index in the low to intermediate Reynolds number range (1 < Re < 100). To analyze the fluid flow, a set of numerical simulations were performed using the finite-difference method. The microchip was fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane, employing the soft-lithography technique. The degree of mixing was increased by 99.11 % when using the proposed micromixer, compared to 59.44 % for a simple spiral micromixer. The introduced microchannel drastically reduced the mixing length, increasing the mixing index of a 0.5-loop spiral-sinusoidal microchannel compared to that of the simple spiral microchannel with 1.5 loops. The mixing index of the 3-loop mixer was higher than that of the microchannel with 1.5 loops, and its pressure drop was increased.  相似文献   
2.
The performance of Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is affected by several operating conditions. Therefore, in the present study, an optimization study was done to determine the working efficiency of MEC in terms of COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal, hydrogen and current generation. Optimization was carried out using a quadratic mathematical model of response surface methodology (RSM). Thirteen sets of experimental runs were performed to optimize the applied voltage and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of single chambered batch fed MEC operated with dairy industry wastewater. The operating conditions (i.e) an applied voltage of 0.8 V and HRT of 2 days that showed a maximum COD removal response was chosen for further studies. The MEC operated at optimized condition (HRT- 2 days and applied voltage- 0.8 V) showed a COD removal efficiency of 95 ± 2%, hydrogen generation of 32 ± 5 mL/L/d, Power density of 152 mW/cm2 and current generation of 19 mA. The results of the study implied that RSM, with its high degree of accuracy can be a reliable tool for optimizing the process of wastewater treatment. Also, dairy industry wastewater can be considered to be a potential source to generate hydrogen and energy through MEC at short HRT.  相似文献   
3.
This paper was intended to delineate numerical research for hydrogen catalytic combustion over a circular cylinder. The wire/rod-type catalytic reactor is a simple geometry reactor with an economical design with less pressure loss. For the single rod in the reaction channel, the flow characteristic and the difference of conversion efficiency between non-gas-phase reaction and gas-phase reaction have been delineated in the present study. The flow field and the chemical reactions were numerically modeled using 2D Large Eddy Simulation combined with the gas-phase and surface reaction mechanisms. The results show that the current numerical simulation has been validated to precisely predict the vortex shedding and its frequency in the cold flows. Despite the variation trends being dominated by the upstream flow, the vortex shedding phenomena were affected by the flue gas generated from the rod surface. It can be seen from the linear relationship between the vortex shedding frequency of reacting flow and Reynolds Number. It is noted that the vortex shedding vanished if the gas-phase reaction was ignited in the reaction channel. In addition, the geometric modified conversion efficiency was proposed to delineate an indicator that could be potential for the optimization of rod-type catalytic reactor. In summary, the fundamental study of a rod in a 2D flow channel can provide information for optimizing the catalytic design or the rod array arrangement in the reactor. Moreover, the rod can also be a partial catalytic flame holder to ignite and stabilize the gas-phase reaction. The obtained results could be the potential for practical applications of rod-type catalytic combustion, catalytic gas turbine, hydrogen generation, partially catalytic reaction flame holder, and other catalytic reactions that can be appreciated.  相似文献   
4.
An important difficulty associated with alkaline water electrolysis is the rise in anode overpotential attributable to bubble coverage of the electrode surface. For this study, a system with a high-speed video camera was developed, achieving in-situ observation of bubble generation on an electrode surface, monitoring an area of 1.02 mm2 at 6000 frames per second. The relation between polarization curve (current density up to 3.0 A cm?2) and oxygen bubble generation behavior on nickel electrodes having cylindrical wires and rectangular wires of different sizes (100–300 μm) was clarified. The generated bubbles slide upward, contacting the electrode surface and detaching at the top edge. Observations indicate that small electrodes have short bubble residence time and thin bubble covering layer on the electrode. As a result, the small electrode diameter contributes to smaller overpotential at high current density.  相似文献   
5.
Reformed exhaust gas recirculation technology has attracted great attention in internal combustion engines. A platform of an exhaust gas-fuel reformer connected with the marine LNG engine was set up for generating on-board hydrogen. Based on the platform, effects of the methane to oxygen ratio (M/O) and reformed exhaust gas ratio (REG) from the reformer and excess air ratio (λ) from the engine on the components, hydrogen yield, thermal efficiency and reforming process of the reformer were experimentally investigated. Results shown that hydrogen-rich gases (reformate) can be generated by reforming the mixture of engine exhaust gas (about 400 °C) and methane supplied via the reformer with Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, and the hydrogen concentration of reformate was between 6.2% and 12.6% by volume. The methane supplied rate and λ affected the components and temperature of the reactant in the reformer, while REG changed the gas hour space velocity during the exhaust gas-fuel reforming processes, resulting in the difference in the components of the reformate and thermal efficiency. At the present experimental condition, the highest H2 concentration reformate was generated under the M/O of 2.0, λ of 1.55 and REG of 6%.  相似文献   
6.
The low performance of open-cathode proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (OCPEMFCs) is attributed to the low-humidity ambient air supplied to the cathode using electric fans. To improve the OCPEMFC performance, this paper proposes a novel humidification method by collecting water purged from the anode and supplying it to the open cathode. The OCPEMFC performance is evaluated at various humidifier distances from the cathode inlet, and it is compared with that where no humidifier is used when the OCPEMFC operates under three different current levels of 1, 5, and 8 A. The results show that the novel design improves the stack power, and optimal performance is achieved at a humidifier distance of 2 cm. The energy efficiency achieves an improvement between 1.4% and 1.8% when a humidifier is used.  相似文献   
7.
《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(10):8130-8142
Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measurement of the difference between actual and predicted feed intake when adjusted for energy sinks; more efficient cows eat less than predicted (low RFI) and inefficient cows eat more than predicted (high RFI). Data evaluating the relationship between RFI and feeding behaviors (FB) are limited in dairy cattle; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine daily and temporal FB in mid-lactation Holstein cows across a range of RFI values. Mid-lactation Holstein cows (n = 592 multiparous; 304 primiparous) were enrolled in 17 cohorts at 97 ± 26 d in milk (± standard deviation), and all cows within a cohort were fed a common diet using automated feeding bins. Cow RFI was calculated as the difference between predicted and observed dry matter intake (DMI) after accounting for parity, days in milk, milk energy, metabolic body weight and change, and experiment. The associations between RFI and FB at the level of meals and daily totals were evaluated using mixed models with the fixed effect of RFI and the random effects of cow and cohort. Daily temporal FB analyses were conducted using 2-h blocks and analyzed using mixed models with the fixed effects of RFI, time, RFI × time, and cohort, and the random effect of cow (cohort). There was a positive linear association between RFI and DMI in multiparous cows and a positive quadratic relationship in primiparous cows, where the rate of increase in DMI was less at higher RFI. Eating rate, DMI per meal, and size of the largest daily meal were positively associated with RFI. Daily temporal analysis of FB revealed an interaction between RFI and time for eating rate in multiparous and primiparous cows. The eating rate increased with greater RFI at 11 of 12 time points throughout the day, and eating rate differed across RFI between multiple time points. There tended to be an interaction between RFI and time for eating time and bin visits in multiparous cows but not primiparous cows. Overall, there was a time effect for all FB variables, where DMI, eating time and rate, and bin visits were greatest after the initial daily feeding at 1200 h, increased slightly after each milking, and reached a nadir at 0600 h (6 h before feeding). Considering the relationship between RFI and eating rate, additional efforts to determine cost-effective methods of quantifying eating rate in group-housed dairy cows is warranted. Further investigation is also warranted to determine if management strategies to alter FB, especially eating rate, can be effective in increasing feed efficiency in lactating dairy cattle.  相似文献   
8.
Evaluating the efficiency of healthcare services accurately can help in analyzing the rationality of inputs and outputs in such services. Considering the consistency and equity of assessment criteria, this study conducts the stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-2) with a directional distance function to evaluate the efficiency of healthcare services in 31 provincial administrative regions of mainland China, as observed in 2018. We use SMAA-DDF to explore all the projection directions to the efficient frontier instead of a certain projection direction. We measure the maximum and average efficiencies for each of the 31 provincial healthcare services. Our empirical findings show that only seven provinces achieve optimal healthcare service efficiency; the eastern area performed the best, followed by the central, western, and northeast areas. Furthermore, the path along the projection directions is provided to help inefficient provinces improve their efficiency and obtain the best possible positions.  相似文献   
9.
High-efficiency Yb:Y2O3 laser ceramics were fabricated using the vacuum-sintering plus hot isostatic pressing (HIP) without sintering additives. High-purity well-dispersed nanocrystalline Yb:Y2O3 powder was synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method in-house. The green bodies were first vacuum sintered at a temperature as low as 1430°C and then HIPed at 1450°C. Finally, the samples were air annealed at 800°C for 10 h. Although no sintering aids were used, full density of the samples with excellent optical homogeneity and an inline transmission of 80% at 400 nm could be obtained. Moreover, photodarkening phenomenon was not detected in the ceramics. Preliminary laser experiment with the fabricated ceramics in a two-mirror cavity has demonstrated 32 W continuous-wave (CW) output at ∼1077 nm with an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 58.2%. To the best of our knowledge, this is so far the highest CW output power and optical-to-optical conversion efficiency achieved with the Yb3+-doped sesquioxide ceramics in a simple two-mirror cavity.  相似文献   
10.
Based on the new process named “Combination Method” for metallurgy and separation of Baotou mixed rare earth concentrate (BMREC), the aim of this paper is to clearly elucidate the phase change behavior of BMREC without additives during oxidative roasting at 450–800 °C. The results indicate that the bastnaesite in BMREC is decomposed at 450–550 °C, the weight loss is about 10.3 wt%, and the activation energy (E) is 144 kJ/mol. The bastnaesite in BMREC is decomposed into rare earth fluoride, rare earth oxides (La2O3, Ce7O12, Pr6O11 and Nd2O3), and CO2, particularly, with the increase of roasting temperature, bastnaesite in BMREC is more completely decomposed into LaF3, which causes a decrease in leaching rate of La during the HCl leaching process. Additionally, the maximum cerium oxidation efficiency reaches about 60 wt% when the roasting temperature is equal to or above 500 °C, and the oxidation reaction rate of cerium increases with the increasing roasting temperature.  相似文献   
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