首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   32504篇
  免费   2761篇
  国内免费   1867篇
电工技术   1520篇
技术理论   1篇
综合类   2244篇
化学工业   10204篇
金属工艺   1706篇
机械仪表   1062篇
建筑科学   1119篇
矿业工程   523篇
能源动力   757篇
轻工业   4410篇
水利工程   447篇
石油天然气   2069篇
武器工业   262篇
无线电   2923篇
一般工业技术   2869篇
冶金工业   903篇
原子能技术   510篇
自动化技术   3603篇
  2024年   38篇
  2023年   404篇
  2022年   607篇
  2021年   1835篇
  2020年   904篇
  2019年   832篇
  2018年   787篇
  2017年   961篇
  2016年   1201篇
  2015年   1266篇
  2014年   1723篇
  2013年   1989篇
  2012年   2219篇
  2011年   2626篇
  2010年   1829篇
  2009年   2038篇
  2008年   1896篇
  2007年   2048篇
  2006年   1889篇
  2005年   1509篇
  2004年   1267篇
  2003年   1120篇
  2002年   945篇
  2001年   777篇
  2000年   607篇
  1999年   550篇
  1998年   415篇
  1997年   372篇
  1996年   364篇
  1995年   385篇
  1994年   333篇
  1993年   228篇
  1992年   201篇
  1991年   162篇
  1990年   143篇
  1989年   110篇
  1988年   82篇
  1987年   56篇
  1986年   76篇
  1985年   49篇
  1984年   48篇
  1983年   33篇
  1982年   38篇
  1981年   31篇
  1980年   33篇
  1979年   36篇
  1978年   14篇
  1977年   12篇
  1975年   14篇
  1974年   10篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
2.
Heat transfer within ceramic feedstock powders is still unclear, which impedes optimization of the thermal and mechanical properties of the thermal sprayed coatings. The microspheres (yttria-stabilized zirconia YSZ and lanthanum zirconate LZO) were prepared via the electro-spraying assisted phase inversion method (ESP). The thermal properties of the two ESP microspheres and a commercial hollow spherical powder (HOSP) were investigated by using theoretical, experimental, and simulation methods. Thermal conductivity of the single microsphere was estimated via a novel nest model that was derived from the Maxwell-Eucken 1 and the EMT model. Thermal conductivity of a single YSZ/LZO-ESP microsphere prepared at 1100–1200 °C was within 0.36–0.75 W/m K, which was ~ 20 % lower than that of a single YSZ-HOSP microsphere with a similar porosity. Heat flux simulation showed that high tortuosity around the multi-scaled voids of the ESP microsphere led to a more efficient decrease in thermal conductivity compared with total porosity.  相似文献   
3.
用块状渣土置换软弱地基和回填低洼谷地等是处置工程渣土的有效途径。为了分析饱和块状混合回填土地基的固结性状,运用混合物理论建立了其一维固结模型。首先,假定块状土固相和充填土固相之间满足等应变条件,获得了饱和块状混合回填土中各相应变与块状土孔隙变形和充填土孔隙变形的关系式。其次,在小应变条件下,根据自由能势函数方程建立了饱和块状混合回填土的一维线弹性本构方程,再结合达西定律和应力平衡方程获得了一维固结控制方程。再次,利用分离变量法得到一维固结解析解,通过退化本文模型与已有模型进行对比,验证了本文模型的正确性。最后,基于所得解析解,分析了充填土孔隙渗透系数、块状土孔隙渗透系数以及流体交换参数等因素对饱和块状混合回填土地基固结性状的影响。分析结果表明:充填土孔隙渗透系数对饱和块状混合回填土地基整体固结性状起主导作用;在固结初期,块状土超孔压会有一定程度的上升,且3个参数具有相似的作用机理。  相似文献   
4.
5.
目的:探讨脂质及药物代谢相关基因SLCO1B1和ApoE的基因多态性在安徽地区汉族心血管疾病患者中的分布,以评估他汀类药物个体化用药的效益/风险比。方法:利用PCR-荧光探针法技术检测2019年1月至2020年8月合肥市第二人民医院736例心血管疾病患者外周血基因组中SLCO1B1基因的rs2306283(388A>G)和rs4149056(521T>C)位点和ApoE基因的rs429358(388T>C)和rs7412(526C>T)位点的基因多态性分布特点,并与已报道的中国其他地区汉族心血管疾病患者的数据进行比较,分析不同地区间的基因型分布差异。结果:检测到安徽地区汉族心血管疾病患者中SLCO1B1基因型有6种,分别为*1a/*1a型(6.11%)、*1a/*1b型(29.08%)、*1b/*1b型(44.57%)、*1a/*15型(4.08%)、*1b/*15型(15.49%)、*15/*15型(0.68%),未检测到*1a/*5型、*5/*5型和*5/*15型;ApoE基因有6种表型,分别为E2/E2型(0.41%)、E2/E3型(11.96%)、E2/E4型(1.09%)、E3/E3型(67.66%)、E3/E4型(17.93%)、E4/E4型(0.95%)。两种基因的基因多态性频率分布满足Hardy-Weinberg遗传平衡,具有群体代表性。本研究人群中携带SLCO1B1正常肌病风险型的比例最高,约占79.76%;SLCO1B1中度肌病风险型和高度肌病风险型的人群比例较低,分别为19.57%和0.68%。ApoE大众类基因型比例最高,约占68.75%;ApoE保护类基因型及风险类基因型的人群比例分别为12.37%和18.88%。不同性别间SLCO1B1和ApoE基因表型患者差异无统计学意义。与华南地区心血管疾病患者相比,安徽地区ApoE基因多态性分布差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:安徽地区736例心血管疾病患者SLCO1B1和ApoE基因型分别以他汀药物剂量耐受性较高的正常肌病风险型和对他汀药物敏感的大众类基因型为主,服用他汀类药物诱发肌病的风险较低,降脂疗效较好;且两种基因的多态性分布均不受性别的影响,但ApoE基因多态性分布特征可能在地域上存在差异。因此,检测SLCO1B1和APOE基因多态性对于临床评估效益/风险比有重要的指导意义。  相似文献   
6.
7.
The first step of urine formation is the selective filtration of the plasma into the urinary space at the kidney structure called the glomerulus. The filtration barrier of the glomerulus allows blood cells and large proteins such as albumin to be retained while eliminating the waste products of the body. The filtration barrier consists of three layers: fenestrated endothelial cells, glomerular basement membrane, and podocytes. Podocytes are specialized epithelial cells featured by numerous, actin-based projections called foot processes. Proteins on the foot process membrane are connected to the well-organized intracellular actin network. The Rho family of small GTPases (Rho GTPases) act as intracellular molecular switches. They tightly regulate actin dynamics and subsequent diverse cellular functions such as adhesion, migration, and spreading. Previous studies using podocyte-specific transgenic or knockout animal models have established that Rho GTPases are crucial for the podocyte health and barrier function. However, little attention has been paid regarding subcellular locations where distinct Rho GTPases contribute to specific functions. In the current review, we discuss cellular events involving the prototypical Rho GTPases (RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42) in podocytes, with particular focus on the subcellular compartments where the signaling events occur. We also provide our synthesized views of the current understanding and propose future research directions.  相似文献   
8.
Redox (reduction–oxidation) reactions control many important biological processes in all organisms, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This reaction is usually accomplished by canonical disulphide-based pathways involving a donor enzyme that reduces the oxidised cysteine residues of a target protein, resulting in the cleavage of its disulphide bonds. Focusing on human vitamin K epoxide reductase (hVKORC1) as a target and on four redoxins (protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase (ERp18), thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 1 (Tmx1) and thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 4 (Tmx4)) as the most probable reducers of VKORC1, a comparative in-silico analysis that concentrates on the similarity and divergence of redoxins in their sequence, secondary and tertiary structure, dynamics, intraprotein interactions and composition of the surface exposed to the target is provided. Similarly, hVKORC1 is analysed in its native state, where two pairs of cysteine residues are covalently linked, forming two disulphide bridges, as a target for Trx-fold proteins. Such analysis is used to derive the putative recognition/binding sites on each isolated protein, and PDI is suggested as the most probable hVKORC1 partner. By probing the alternative orientation of PDI with respect to hVKORC1, the functionally related noncovalent complex formed by hVKORC1 and PDI was found, which is proposed to be a first precursor to probe thiol–disulphide exchange reactions between PDI and hVKORC1.  相似文献   
9.
4-methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP), a major active metabolite of bisphenol A (BPA), is generated in the mammalian liver. Some studies have suggested that MBP exerts greater toxicity than BPA. However, the mechanism underlying MBP-induced pancreatic β-cell cytotoxicity remains largely unclear. This study demonstrated the cytotoxicity of MBP in pancreatic β-cells and elucidated the cellular mechanism involved in MBP-induced β-cell death. Our results showed that MBP exposure significantly reduced cell viability, caused insulin secretion dysfunction, and induced apoptotic events including increased caspase-3 activity and the expression of active forms of caspase-3/-7/-9 and PARP protein. In addition, MBP triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as indicated by the upregulation of GRP 78, CHOP, and cleaved caspase-12 proteins. Pretreatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA; a pharmacological inhibitor of ER stress) markedly reversed MBP-induced ER stress and apoptosis-related signals. Furthermore, exposure to MBP significantly induced the protein phosphorylation of JNK and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α. Pretreatment of β-cells with pharmacological inhibitors for JNK (SP600125) and AMPK (compound C), respectively, effectively abrogated the MBP-induced apoptosis-related signals. Both JNK and AMPK inhibitors also suppressed the MBP-induced activation of JNK and AMPKα and of each other. In conclusion, these findings suggest that MBP exposure exerts cytotoxicity on β-cells via the interdependent activation of JNK and AMPKα, which regulates the downstream apoptotic signaling pathway.  相似文献   
10.
Cell surface and secreted proteins provide essential functions for multicellular life. They enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen co-translationally, where they mature and fold into their complex three-dimensional structures. The ER is populated with a host of molecular chaperones, associated co-factors, and enzymes that assist and stabilize folded states. Together, they ensure that nascent proteins mature properly or, if this process fails, target them for degradation. BiP, the ER HSP70 chaperone, interacts with unfolded client proteins in a nucleotide-dependent manner, which is tightly regulated by eight DnaJ-type proteins and two nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs), SIL1 and GRP170. Loss of SIL1′s function is the leading cause of Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS), an autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder. The development of animal models has provided insights into SIL1′s functions and MSS-associated pathologies. This review provides an in-depth update on the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying SIL1′s NEF activity and its role in maintaining ER homeostasis and normal physiology. A precise understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with the loss of SIL1 may allow for the development of new pharmacological approaches to treat MSS.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号