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1.
Garzan oil field is located at the south east of Turkey. It is a mature oil field and the reservoir is fractured carbonate reservoir. After producing about 1% original oil in place (OOIP) reservoir pressure started to decline. Waterflooding was started in order to support reservoir pressure and also to enhance oil production in 1960. Waterflooding improved the oil recovery but after years of flooding water breakthrough at the production wells was observed. This increased the water/oil ratio at the production wells. In order to enhance oil recovery again different techniques were investigated. Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are gaining attention all over the world for oil recovery. Surfactant injection is an effective way for interfacial tension (IFT) reduction and wettability reversal. In this study, 31 different types of chemicals were studied to specify the effects on oil production. This paper presents solubility of surfactants in brine, IFT and contact angle measurements, imbibition tests, and lastly core flooding experiments. Most of the chemicals were incompatible with Garzan formation water, which has high divalent ion concentration. In this case, the usage of 2-propanol as co-surfactant yielded successful results for stability of the selected chemical solutions. The results of the wettability test indicated that both tested cationic and anionic surfactants altered the wettability of the carbonate rock from oil-wet to intermediate-wet. The maximum oil recovery by imbibition test was reached when core was exposed 1-ethly ionic liquid after imbibition in formation water. Also, after core flooding test, it is concluded that considerable amount of oil can be recovered from Garzan reservoir by waterflooding alone if adverse effects of natural fractures could be eliminated.  相似文献   
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Uzun  İlhan  Orak  İkram  Yağmur  Hatice Karaer  Karakaplan  Mehmet  Yalman  Murat 《SILICON》2021,13(12):4703-4713
Silicon - 5-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-furoic acid and anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid were reacted separately with chitin. The synthesized products were characterized by various spectroscopic methods...  相似文献   
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ABSTRACT

The thermal characterization of aluminum flat grooved heat pipes is performed experimentally for different groove dimensions. Three heat pipes with groove widths of 0.2?mm, 0.4?mm, and 1.5?mm are used in the experiments. The effect of the amount of the working fluid is extensively studied for each groove width. The results reveal that, although all three succeed in dissipating the heat input through the phase change of the working fluid by continuous evaporation and condensation, the effectiveness of the heat transfer increases with reduced groove width. Furthermore, it is observed that there exists an optimum operating point, where the temperature difference between the heating and cooling sections is at a minimum, and the magnitude of this temperature difference is a strong function of the groove width. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the combined effects of groove dimensions and the amount of the working fluid, from fully flooded to dry, is reported for the first time for aluminum flat grooved heat pipes.  相似文献   
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This paper analyses the contribution of age and cohort effects on home-ownership and housing wealth in Turkey. I construct a pseudo-panel data set based on birth-year cohorts by using sixteen waves of the Turkish Statistical Institute Household Budget Surveys from 2003 to 2018. The empirical analysis reveals that young cohorts are less likely to own their homes, but they are more likely to have outstanding housing debt. Moreover, they are as willing to invest in second homes as older cohorts. I estimate a Heckman two-step selection model to distinguish the contribution of the improvement in the quality of new buildings to home values. As a result, I find that cohort effects on home values are significantly larger for young households even after controlling for age effects and the improvement in the quality of new buildings. Thus, the empirical findings show that young cohorts have a stronger housing demand than old cohorts.

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Multimedia Tools and Applications - The world is facing many problems including that of traffic congestion. To highlight the issue of traffic congestion worldwide specially in urban areas and to...  相似文献   
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Metal Science and Heat Treatment - The effect of solid boronizing at 950°C for 2 and 4 h on the phase composition, microstructure, hardness and abrasive wear of steel AISI 304L is studied...  相似文献   
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Among the thermoplastic elastomers that play important roles in the polymer industry due to their superior properties, styrene-based species and polyurethane block copolymers are of great interest. Poly(styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene) (SEBS) as a triblock copolymer seems to have the potential to meet many demands in different applications due to various industrial requirements where durability, biocompatibility, breaking elongation, and interfacial adhesion are important. In this study, the SEBS triblock copolymer was functionalized with natural (Satureja hortensis, SH) and synthetic (nanopowder, TiO2) agents to obtain composite nanofibers by electrospinning and electrospraying methods for use in biomedical and water filtration applications. The results were compared with thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite nanofibers, which are commonly used in these fields. Here, functionalized SEBS nanofibers exhibited antibacterial effect while at the same time improving cell viability. In addition, because of successful water filtration by using the SEBS composite nanofibers, the material may have a good potential to be used comparably to TPU for the application.  相似文献   
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