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1.
The current trends in energy were described, the main of which is the use of alternative energy sources, especially hydrogen. The most common methods of hydrogen accumulation were proposed: accumulation of compressed gaseous hydrogen in high-pressure tanks; accumulation of liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks; storing hydrogen in a chemically bound state; accumulation of gaseous hydrogen in carriers with a high specific surface area. Based on the combination of advantages and disadvantages, the most promising methods of accumulation were selected: storage of liquid hydrogen and storage of hydrogen in carriers with a high specific surface area. The main requirement for materials for hydrogen storage by these methods was revealed – a high specific surface area. Prospects for the development of waste-free low-emission technologies due to the recycling of secondary raw materials and the development of low-temperature technologies for the synthesis of functional and structural materials were substantiated. The applicability of large-scale ash and slag waste from coal-fired thermal power plants as a raw material for obtaining materials by low-temperature technologies was shown. The traditional ways of using ash and slag waste as a raw material, active additive and filler in the production of cements were described. Modern technologies for the production of innovative materials with a unique set of properties were presented, namely carbon nanotubes, silica aerogel and geopolymer materials. The prospect of using geopolymer matrices as a precursor for the synthesis of a number of materials was described; the most promising type of materials was selected – geopolymer foams, which are mainly used as sorbents for purifying liquids and gases or accumulating target products, as well as heat-insulating materials. The possibility of obtaining products of any shape and size on the basis of geopolymer matrices without high-temperature processing was shown. The special efficiency of the development of the technology of porous granules and powders obtained from a geopolymer precursor using various methods was substantiated. The obtained granules can be used in the following hydrogen storage technologies: direct accumulation of hydrogen in porous granules; creation of insulating layers for liquid hydrogen storage units.  相似文献   
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《Ceramics International》2022,48(17):24383-24392
We propose a novel approach for manufacturing dual-scale porosity alumina structures by UV curing-assisted 3D plotting of a specially formulated alumina feedstock using a thermo-regulated phase separable, photocurable camphene/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) vehicle. In particular, 3D plotting process was conducted at - 5 °C, and thus an alumina suspension prepared using liquid camphene/TEGDMA at room temperature could undergo phase separation, resulting in camphene crystals surrounded by walls comprised of liquid photopolymer enclosing alumina particles. To enhance the shape retention ability of extruded filaments, polystyrene (PS) polymer was used as the tackifier. The phase-separated feedrod could be extruded favorably through a nozzle and rapidly photopolymerized by UV light during the 3D plotting process. Three-dimensionally interconnected macropores were tightly constructed, which were separated by microporous alumina filaments, where micropores were created by the removal of camphene crystals via freeze-dying. The macroporosity of porous alumina ceramics was controlled by adjusting the distance between deposited filaments, while their microporosity was kept constant, leading to tightly tailored overall porosity and mechanical properties.  相似文献   
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《Ceramics International》2022,48(6):8297-8305
Pure and Sn/Fe co-doped (0.2 at.% Sn and 0.6 at.% Fe, 0.6 at.% Sn and 0.2 at.% Fe, 1.0 at.% Sn and 1.0 at.% Fe) TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via a sol-gel method and subsequently calcined at different temperatures. Furthermore, the particles were analyzed by TG-DSC, XRD, TEM, HRTEM, EDS, SAED and UV–Vis for investigating the influences of dopant and calcination temperature on the thermal effect, composition, morphology, energy band gap (Eg) and the degradation efficiency of methyl orange (MO) under various light irradiations respectively. Results indicated that Sn/Fe co-doping inhibited the crystallization transformation from anatase to rutile phase of TiO2 and decreased the Eg. The increased calcination temperature and Sn/Fe co-doped effect brought about the abnormal grain growth of TiO2 nanoparticles. 0.6 at.% Sn/0.2 at.% Fe and 1.0 at.% Sn/1.0 at.% Fe co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles presented better photocatalytic performance than pure and 0.2 at.% Sn/0.6 at.% Fe co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light irradiation mainly due to the decreased Eg. On the contrary, 0.2 at.% Sn and 0.6 at.% Fe co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles calcined at 650 °C showed the most excellent photocatalytic performance under UV light irradiation, which was about twice as large as that of pure TiO2 possibly due to the formed hybrid structure of anatase and rutile phase as well as the h+-mediated decomposition pathway.  相似文献   
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《Ceramics International》2022,48(8):10613-10619
Alumina ceramics with different unit numbers and gradient modes were prepared by digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing technology. The side length of each functional gradient structure was 10 mm, the porosity ratio was controlled to 70%, and the number of units were (1 × 1 × 1 unit) and (2 × 2 × 2 unit) respectively. The different gradient modes were named FCC, GFCC-1, GFCC-2 and GFCC-3. SEM, XRD, and other characterization methods proved that these gradient structures of alumina ceramics had only α-Al2O3 phase and good surface morphology. The mechanical properties and energy absorption properties of alumina ceramics with different functional gradient structures were studied by compression test. The results show that the gradient structure with 1 × 1 × 1 unit has better mechanical properties and energy absorption properties when the number of units is different. When the number of units is the same, GFCC-2 and GFCC-3 gradient structures have better compressive performance and energy absorption potential than FCC structures. The GFCC-2 gradient structure with 1 × 1 × 1 unit has a maximum compressive strength of 19.62 MPa and a maximum energy absorption value of 2.72 × 105 J/m3. The good performance of such functional gradient structures can provide new ideas for the design of lightweight and compressive energy absorption structures in the future.  相似文献   
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《Ceramics International》2022,48(4):4401-4423
Nano-zirconia has been widely applied due to its excellent physical and chemical properties (e.g., high strength, corrosion resistance, oxygen ion conductivity). Existing preparation methods of nano-zirconia tend to require long reaction time, and the sizes of final particles are large with uneven distributions. Sub-/supercritical hydrothermal synthesis of nanoparticles is favored by researchers owing to controllable reaction process, uniform particle size distribution, good reproducibility, short reaction time, high conversion rate and harmlessness to environment. In this paper, the characteristics and mechanisms of dissolution, crystallization and growth of nano-zirconia during sub-/supercritical hydrothermal synthesis are systematically reviewed. The influences of process and material parameters on the size and purity of particles are analyzed. Then, the reaction mechanism and product phase transition mechanism during hydrothermal synthesis of zirconia are summarized to provide a theoretical reference for the oriented preparation. Finally, the improvement and commercialization of sub-/supercritical hydrothermal synthesis technology are evaluated, and the future research topics are proposed.  相似文献   
8.
B4C-TiB2 ceramics (TiB2 ranging 5~70 vol%) with Mo-Co-WC as the sintering additive were prepared by spark plasma sintering. In comparison with B4C-TiB2 without additive, the enhanced densification was evident in the sintered specimen with Mo-Co-WC additive. Core-rim structured grain was observed around TiB2 grains. The interface of the rim between TiB2 and B4C phases demonstrated different feature: the inner borderline of the rim exhibited a smooth feature, whereas a sharp curved grain boundary was observed between the rim and the B4C grain. The formation mechanism is discussed: the epitaxial growth of (Ti,Mo,W)B2 rim around the TiB2 core may occur as a result of the solid solution and dissolution-precipitation between TiB2 phase and the sintering additive. It was revealed that the fracture toughness increased as the content of TiB2 content increased, alongside the decreased hardness. B4C-30 vol% TiB2 specimen demonstrated the optimal combination of mechanical properties, reaching Vickers hardness of 24.3 GPa and fracture toughness of 3.33 MPa·m1/2.  相似文献   
9.
Poly(l ‐lactic acid) (PLLA) is a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic polyester produced from renewable sources, widely used for biomedical devices, in food packaging and in agriculture. It is a semicrystalline polymer, and as such its properties are strongly affected by the developed semicrystalline morphology. As a function of the crystallization temperature, PLLA can form different crystal modifications, namely α′‐crystals below about 120 °C and α‐crystals at higher temperatures. The α′ modification is therefore of special importance as it may be the preferred polymorph developing at processing‐relevant conditions. It is a metastable modification which typically transforms into the more stable α‐crystals on annealing at elevated temperature. The structure, kinetics of formation and thermodynamics of α′‐ and α‐crystals of PLLA are reviewed in this contribution, together with the effect of α′‐/α‐crystal polymorphism on the properties of PLLA. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry  相似文献   
10.
To investigate the effect of cooking temperature (55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 °C) on texture and flavour binding of braised sauce porcine skin (BSPS), sensory acceptance, microstructure and flavour-binding capacity were investigated during the processing of BSPS. Samples cooked at 85 and 95 °C showed better texture and aroma scores. Hardness and chewiness of BSPS were obviously improved at 85 and 95 °C than control group. Collagen structure was significantly destroyed over 85 °C. The porcine skin collagen heated at 85 and 95 °C showed relatively higher flavour-binding capacity than other samples. The improvement of texture of BSPS was mainly attributed to the degradation of collagen. Higher aroma scores of BSPS were related to intense binding abilities with aroma compounds at 85 and 95 °C. Cooking at 85 or 95 °C could be an optimal cooking temperature for BSPS.  相似文献   
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