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1.
Ca3Co4O9 is a promising p-type thermoelectric oxide material having intrinsically low thermal conductivity. With low cost and opportunities for automatic large scale production, thick film technologies offer considerable potential for a new generation of micro-sized thermoelectric coolers or generators. Here, based on the chemical composition optimized by traditional solid state reaction for bulk samples, we present a viable approach to modulating the electrical transport properties of screen-printed calcium cobaltite thick films through control of the microstructural evolution by optimized heat-treatment. XRD and TEM analysis confirmed the formation of high-quality calcium cobaltite grains. By creating 2.0 at% cobalt deficiency in Ca2.7Bi0.3Co4O9+δ, the pressureless sintered ceramics reached the highest power factor of 98.0 μWm?1 K-2 at 823 K, through enhancement of electrical conductivity by reduction of poorly conducting secondary phases. Subsequently, textured thick films of Ca2.7Bi0.3Co3.92O9+δ were efficiently tailored by controlling the sintering temperature and holding time. Optimized Ca2.7Bi0.3Co3.92O9+δ thick films sintered at 1203 K for 8 h exhibited the maximum power factor of 55.5 μWm?1 K-2 at 673 K through microstructure control.  相似文献   
2.
The introduction of catalyst on anode of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been an effective way to alleviate the carbon deposition when utilizing biogas as the fuel. A series of La0.6Sr0.4Co1-xNixO3-δ (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) oxides are synthesized by sol-gel method and used as catalysts precursors for biogas dry reforming. The phase structure of La0.6Sr0.4Co1-xNixO3-δ oxides before and after reduction are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The texture properties, carbon deposition, CH4 and CO2 conversion rate of La0.6Sr0.4Co1-xNixO3-δ catalysts are evaluated and compared. The peak power density of 739 mW cm?2 is obtained by a commercial SOFC with La0.6Sr0.4Co0.4Ni0.6O3-δ catalyst at 850 °C when using a mixture of CH4: CO2 = 2:1 as fuel. This shows a great improvement from the cell without catalyst for internal dry reforming, which is attributed to the formation of NiCo alloy active species after reduction in H2 atmosphere. The results indicate the benefits of inhibiting the carbon deposition on Ni-based anode through introducing the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.4Ni0.6O3-δ catalyst precursor. Additionally, the dry reforming technology will also help to convert part of the exhaust heat into chemical energy and improve the efficiency of SOFC system with biogas fuel.  相似文献   
3.
High-temperature water electrolysis through solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) will play a key role in building a hydrogen economy in the future. However, the delamination between the air electrode and the electrolyte remains a critical issue to be addressed. Previously, it was hypothesized that Co migration may improve the catalytic activity of the SrZrO3 second phase at the LSCF-YSZ interface, eventually leading to the delamination. In this work, the LSCF-YSZ interfaces sintered at different temperatures were examined in detail. The activation behaviors of the LSCF electrodes upon application with electrolysis current were characterized under different conditions. Further, samples containing purposely added SrZrO3 interlayer with and without cobalt were fabricated and compared. The activation process is less significant for the sample with cobalt-added SrZrO3 interlayer than the sample with pure SrZrO3 layer, supporting the hypothesis that Co migration may lead to the activation behavior.  相似文献   
4.
Mg-based hydride is a promising hydrogen storage material, but its capacity is hindered by the kinetic properties. In this study, Mg–Mg2Ni–LaHx nanocomposite is formed from the H-induced decomposition of Mg98Ni1·67La0.33 alloy. The hydrogen capacity of 7.19 wt % is reached at 325 °C under 3 MPa H2, attributed to the ultrahigh hydrogenation capacity in Stage I. The hydrogen capacity of 5.59 wt % is achieved at 175 °C under 1 MPa H2. The apparent activation energies for hydrogen absorption and desorption are calculated as 57.99 and 107.26 kJ/mol, which are owing to the modified microstructure with LaHx and Mg2Ni nanophases embedding in eutectic, and tubular nanostructure adjacent to eutectic. The LaH2.49 nanophase can catalyze H2 molecules to dissociate and H atoms to permeate due to its stronger affinity with H atoms. The interfaces of these nanophases provide preferential nucleation sites and alleviate the “blocking effect” together with tubular nanostructure by providing H atoms diffusion paths after the impingement of MgH2 colonies. Therefore, the superior hydrogenation properties are achieved because of the rapid absorption process of Stage I. The efficient synthesis of nano-catalysts and corresponding mechanisms for improving hydrogen storage properties have important reference to related researches.  相似文献   
5.
边坡位移的时间序列曲线存在复杂的非线性特性,传统的预测模型精度不足以满足预测要求。为此提出了基于变分模态分解的鸟群优化-核极限学习机的预测模型,并用于河北省某水泥厂的边坡位移预测。该方法首先采用VMD把边坡位移序列分解为一系列的有限带宽的子序列,再对各子序列分别采用相空间重构并用核极限学习机预测,采用鸟群算法优化相空间重构的嵌入维度和KELM中惩罚系数和核参数三个数值,以取得最优预测模型。最后将各个子序列预测值叠加,得到边坡位移的最终预测值。结果表明:和KELM、BSA-KELM、EEMD-BSA-KELM模型相比,基于VMD的BSA-KELM预测精度更高,为边坡位移的预测提供一种有效的方法。  相似文献   
6.
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are considered an important technology in terms of high efficiency and clean energy generation. Flat-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (FT-SOFC) which is a combination of tubular and planar cell geometries stands out with its performance values and low costs. In this study, the performance of an FT-SOFC is analyzed numerically by using finite element method-based design as a result of changing parameters by using different fuels which are pure hydrogen and coal gas with various proportions of CO. In addition, cell performance values for different temperatures were analyzed and interpreted. Analyzes have been performed by using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The rates of CO composition used are 10%, 20%, and 40%, respectively. In addition, the air was used as the oxidizer in all cases. The cell voltage and average cell power of the FT-SOFC were examined under the 800 °C operating condition. The maximum power value and current density value were obtained as 710 W/m2 and 1420 A/m2 for the flat-tubular cell, respectively. As a result of the study, it was observed that the maximum cell power densities increased with increasing temperature. Analysis results showed that FT-SOFCs have suitable properties for different fuel usage and different operating temperatures. High-performance values and design features in different operating conditions are expected to make FT-SOFC the focus of many studies in the future.  相似文献   
7.
Catalyst samples for CH4 decomposition were prepared from red mud (RM) by an acid-leaching neutralization precipitation approach. Water-washing the resultant precipitates multiple times, followed by drying at 105 °C and calcination at 500 °C, resulted in a threshold of residual Na2O, equivalent to 96% Na2O removal. Drying the precipitate at a higher temperature of 200 °C, followed by repeated water washing, provided a deeper Na2O removal of 99% and made the resultant samples more active for the targeted reaction. Subsequently, four catalyst samples with a simulated red mud composition and NaOH contents from 0 to 0.3 wt% were prepared and the catalytic test results revealed that the Na2O remaining in the RM-derived catalysts did not only inhibit their activation in CH4 but also lower their maximal activities for CH4 decomposition. Finally, two catalysts with the same simulated red mud composition and their Na impregnated respectively on Fe2O3 and a mixture support of Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2 were prepared and tested to explore the effect of Na distribution on the activation behavior of RM-derived catalysts for CH4 decomposition. The activity testing results showed that it was the Na residual dispersed on iron oxides in the RM-derived samples to significantly inhibit the activation of CH4 decomposition.  相似文献   
8.
9.
Synthetic active matters are perfect model systems for non-equilibrium thermodynamics and of great potential for novel biomedical and environmental applications. However, most applications are limited by the complicated and low-yield preparation, while a scalable synthesis for highly functional microswimmers is highly desired. In this paper, an all-solution synthesis method is developed where the gold-loaded titania-silica nanotree can be produced as a multi-functional self-propulsion microswimmer. By applying light, heat, and electric field, the Janus nanotree demonstrated multi-mode self-propulsion, including photochemical self-electrophoresis by UV and visible light radiation, thermophoresis by near-infrared light radiation, and induced-charge electrophoresis under AC electric field. Due to the scalable synthesis, the Janus nanotree is further demonstrated as a high-efficiency, low-cost, active adsorbent for water decontamination, where the toxic mercury ions can be reclaimed with enhanced efficiency.  相似文献   
10.
The potential of using high metals containing coal gangue and lignite to prepare high-activity coal char-based catalysts is investigated for effective biomass tar decomposition. Loose structure and rough surface are formed for these char-based catalysts with heterogeneous distribution of a large number of inorganic particles. In the biomass tar decomposition, the performance of the coal char-based catalysts is significantly influenced by the content of the metals in the raw materials and coal gangue char (GC) with the ash content as high as 50.80% exhibits the highest activity in this work. A high biomass tar conversion efficiency of 93.5% is achieved at 800 °C along with a significant increase in the fuel gas product. During the five-time consecutive tests, the catalytic performance of GC increases a little at the second or third times reuse and remains relatively stable, showing the remarkable stability of the catalyst in biomass tar decomposition applications.  相似文献   
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