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1.
Cathode channel of a PEM fuel cell is the critical domain for the transport of water and heat. In this study, a mathematical model of water and heat transport in the cathode channel is established by considering two-phase flow of water and air as well as the phase change between water and vapor. The transport process of the species of air is governed by the convection-diffusion equation. The VOSET (coupled volume-of-fluid and level set method) method is used to track the interface between air and water, and the phase equilibrium method of water and vapor is employed to calculate the mass transfer rate on the two-phase interface. The present model is validated against the results in the literature, then applied to investigate the characteristics of two-phase flow and heat transfer in the cathode channel. The results indicate that in the inlet section, water droplets experience three evolution stages: the growing stage, the coalescence stage and the generation stage of dispersed water drops. However, in the middle and outlet sections of the channel, there are only two stages: the growth of water droplets, and the formation of a water film. The mass transfer rate of phase change in the inlet section of the channel varies over time, exhibiting an initial increase, a decrease followed, and a stabilization finally, with the maximum and stable values of 1.78 × 10?4 kg/s and 1.52 × 10?4 kg/s for Part 1, respectively. In the middle and outlet sections, the mass transfer rate increase firstly and then keeps stable gradually. Furthermore, regarding the distribution of the temperature and vapor mass fraction in the channel, near the upper surface of the channel, the temperature and vapor mass fraction first change slightly (x < 0.03 m) and then rapidly decrease with fluctuations (x > 0.03 m). In the middle of the channel, the temperature and vapor mass fraction slowly decrease with fluctuation.  相似文献   
2.
乡村产业中的化石能源设备逐渐被电能技术替代,引起了乡村负荷波动增大、部分时段产生集中高负荷的问题。为了解决以上问题,将低品位清洁能源应用至乡村的茶叶生产中,针对烘茶全过程的工艺要求提出了跨临界CO2热泵烘茶技术;并以某茶叶生产乡村为对象,对其代表台区的全年日用电量及产茶日负荷进行了分析,得出采用CO2热泵烘茶后其负荷得到大幅度削减,整体可降低至原负荷的39.6%~46.8%,峰值负荷与平时负荷的比值由原本的13.6降至5.4~6.2。跨临界CO2热泵应用至农产品生产中可有效缓解乡村供电压力。  相似文献   
3.
《Ceramics International》2021,47(19):27217-27229
Herein, an in-depth analysis of the effect of heat treatment at temperatures between 900 and 1500 °C under an Ar atmosphere on the structure as well as strength of Cansas-II SiC fibres was presented. The untreated fibres are composed of β-SiC grains, free carbon layers, as well as a small amount of an amorphous SiCxOy phase. As the heat-treatment temperature was increased to 1400 °C, a significant growth of the β-SiC grains and free carbon layers occurred along with the decomposition of the SiCxOy phase. Moreover, owing to the decomposition of the SiCxOy phase, some nanopores formed on the fibre surface upon heating at 1500 °C. The mean strength of the Cansas-II fibres decreased progressively from 2.78 to 1.20 GPa with an increase in the heat-treatment temperature. The degradation of the fibre strength can be attributed to the growth of critical defects, β-SiC grains, as well as the residual tensile stress.  相似文献   
4.
Fire spread and growth on real‐scale four cushion mock‐ups of residential upholstered furniture (RUF) were investigated with the goal of identifying whether changes in five classes of materials (barrier, flexible polyurethane foam, polyester fiber wrap, upholstery fabric, and sewing thread), referred to as factors, resulted in statistically significant changes in burning behavior. A fractional factorial experimental design plus practical considerations yielded a test matrix with 20 material combinations. Experiments were repeated a minimum of two times. Measurements included fire spread rates derived from video recordings and heat release rates (HRRs). A total of 13 experimental parameters (3 based on the videos and 10 on the HRR results), referred to as responses, characterized the measurements. Statistical analyses based on Main Effects Plots (main effects) and Block Plots (main effects and factor interactions) were used. The results showed that three of the factors resulted in statistically significant effects on varying numbers of the 13 responses. The Barrier and Fabric factors had the strongest main effects with roughly comparable magnitudes. Foam was statistically significant for fewer of the responses and its overall strength was weaker than for Barrier and Fabric. No statistically significant main effects were identified for Wrap or Thread. Multiple two‐term interactions between factors were identified as being statistically significant. The Barrier*Fabric interaction resulted in the highest number of and strongest statistically significant effects. The existence of two‐term interactions means that it will be necessary to consider their effects in approaches designed to predict the burning behavior of RUF.  相似文献   
5.
The effects of non-thermal plasma (NTP) on the physicochemical properties of wheat flour and the quality of fresh wet noodles ( FWN) were investigated. The results showed that NTP effectively decreased the total plate count (TPC), yeast and mould count (YMC) and Bacillus spp. in wheat flour. Wet gluten contents and the stability time reached the maximum when treated for 20 s. The viscosity of starch increased significantly after treatment due to the increased of damaged starch. The contents of secondary structure were altered to some extent, which was because that the ordered network structure of gluten protein broken. Furthermore, compared with the control, texture properties of FWN were enhanced significantly at 20 s, and the darkening rate of FWN was greatly inhibited due to the low polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Consequently, the most suitable treatment was 500 W for 20 s, providing a basis for the application of NTP in flour products.  相似文献   
6.
文章介绍了海外某大型火力发电厂发生的一起发电机定子接地故障的分析和处理过程,对发电厂类似故障的处理和海外发电厂的运行和维护提供了参考。  相似文献   
7.
Individually, photoredox catalysis (PC) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) are well-established concepts that have experienced a remarkable resurgence in recent years, leading to significant progress in organic synthesis for PC and clinical approval of anticancer drugs for PDT. But, very recently, new photoredox catalyst systems based on Ir(III) and Ru(II) complexes have garnered significant interest because they can simultaneously be used as PDT agents apart from their demonstrated PC activity. This highlight discusses the unique PC behavior of emerging Ir(III)- and Ru(II)-based systems while also examining their potential PDT activity in cancer treatment.  相似文献   
8.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopowder (P-25;Degussa AG) was treated using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in a rotary electrode DBD (RE-DBD) reactor.Its electrical and optical characteristics were investigated during RE-DBD generation.The treated TiO2 nanopowder properties and structures were analyzed using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).After RE-DBD treatment,XRD measurements indicated that the anatase peak theta positions shifted from 25.3° to 25.1°,which can be attributed to the substitution of new functional groups in the TiO2 lattice.The FTIR results show that hydroxyl groups (OH) at 3400 cm-1 increased considerably.The mechanism used to modify the TiO2 nanopowder surface by air DBD treatment was confirmed from optical emission spectrum measurements.Reactive species,such as OH radical,ozone and atomic oxygen can play key roles in hydroxyl formation on the TiO2 nanopowder surface.  相似文献   
9.
We considered the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convective flow of an incompressible electrically conducting viscous fluid past an infinite vertical permeable porous plate with a uniform transverse magnetic field, heat source and chemical reaction in a rotating frame taking Hall current effects into account. The momentum equations for the fluid flow during absorbent medium are controlled by the Brinkman model. Through the undisturbed state, both the plate and fluid are in a rigid body rotation by the uniform angular velocity perpendicular to an infinite vertical plate. The perpendicular surface is subject to the homogeneous invariable suction at a right angle to it and the heat on the surface varies about a non-zero unvarying average whereas the warmth of complimentary flow is invariable. The systematic solutions of the velocity, temperature, and concentration distributions are acquired systematically by utilizing the perturbation method. The velocity expressions consist of steady-state and fluctuating situations. It is revealed that the steady part of the velocity field has a three-layer characteristic while the oscillatory part of the fluid field exhibits a multi-layer characteristic. The influence of various governing flow parameters on the velocity, temperature, and concentration are analyzed graphically. We also discuss computational results for the skin friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number in the tabular forms.  相似文献   
10.
《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(12):9623-9638
A simulation study was conducted to examine accuracy of estimating daily O2 consumption, CO2 and CH4 emissions, and heat production (HP) using a spot sampling technique and to determine optimal spot sampling frequency (FQ). Data were obtained from 3 experiments where daily O2 consumption, emissions of CO2 and CH4, and HP were measured using indirect calorimetry (respiration chamber or headbox system). Experiment 1 used 8 beef heifers (ad libitum feeding; gaseous exchanges measured every 30 min over 3 d in respiration chambers); Experiment 2 used 56 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows (restricted feeding; gaseous exchanges measured every 12 min over 3 d in respiration chambers); Experiment 3 used 12 lactating Jersey cows (ad libitum feeding; gaseous exchanges measured every hour for 1 d using headbox style chambers). Within experiment, averages of all measurements (FQALL) and averages of measurements selected at time points with 12, 8, 6, or 4 spot sampling FQ (i.e., sampling every 2, 3, 4, and 6 h in a 24-h cycle, respectively; FQ12, FQ8, FQ6, and FQ4, respectively) were compared. Within study a mixed model was used to compare gaseous exchanges and HP among FQALL, FQ12, FQ8, FQ6, and FQ4, and an interaction of dietary treatment by FQ was examined. A regression model was used to evaluate accuracy of spot sampling within study [i.e., FQALL (observed) vs. FQ12, FQ8, FQ6, or FQ4 (estimated)]. No interaction of diet by FQ was observed for any variables except for CH4 production in experiment 1. No FQ effect was observed for gaseous exchanges and HP except in experiment 2 where CO2 production was less (5,411 vs. 5,563 L/d) for FQ4 compared with FQALL, FQ12, and FQ8. A regression analysis between FQALL and each FQ within study showed that slopes and intercepts became farther from 1 and 0, respectively, for almost all variables as FQ decreased. Most variables for FQ12 and FQ8 had root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) less than 10% of the mean and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) greater than 0.80, and RMSPE increased and CCC decreased as FQ decreased. When a regression analysis was conducted with combined data from the 3 experiments (mixed model with study as a random effect), results agreed with those from the analysis for the individual studies. Prediction errors increased and CCC decreased as FQ decreased. Generally, all the estimates from FQ12, FQ8, FQ6, and FQ4 had RMSPE less than 10% of the means and CCC greater than 0.90 except for FQ6 and FQ4 for O2 consumption and CH4 production. In conclusion, the spot sampling simulation with 3 indirect calorimetry experiments indicated that FQ of at least 8 samples (every 3 h in a 24-h cycle) was required to estimate daily O2 consumption, CO2 and CH4 production, and HP and to detect changes in those in response to dietary treatments. This sampling FQ may be considered when using techniques that measure spot gas exchanges such as the GreenFeed and face mask systems.  相似文献   
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