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1.
Small object detection is challenging and far from satisfactory. Most general object detectors suffer from two critical issues with small objects: (1) Feature extractor based on classification network cannot express the characteristics of small objects reasonably due to insufficient appearance information of targets and a large amount of background interference around them. (2) The detector requires a much higher location accuracy for small objects than for general objects. This paper proposes an effective and efficient small object detector YOLSO to address the above problems. For feature representation, we analyze the drawbacks in previous backbones and present a Half-Space Shortcut(HSSC) module to build a background-aware backbone. Furthermore, a coarse-to-fine Feature Pyramid Enhancement(FPE) module is introduced for layer-wise aggregation at a granular level to enhance the semantic discriminability. For loss function, we propose an exponential L1 loss to promote the convergence of regression, and a focal IOU loss to focus on prime samples with high classification confidence and high IOU. Both of them significantly improves the location accuracy of small objects. The proposed YOLSO sets state-of-the-art results on two typical small object datasets, MOCOD and VeDAI, at a speed of over 200 FPS. In the meantime, it also outperforms the baseline YOLOv3 by a wide margin on the common COCO dataset.  相似文献   
2.
The evaluation of the volumetric accuracy of a machine tool is an open challenge in the industry, and a wide variety of technical solutions are available in the market and at research level. All solutions have advantages and disadvantages concerning which errors can be measured, the achievable uncertainty, the ease of implementation, possibility of machine integration and automation, the equipment cost and the machine occupation time, and it is not always straightforward which option to choose for each application. The need to ensure accuracy during the whole lifetime of the machine and the availability of monitoring systems developed following the Industry 4.0 trend are pushing the development of measurement systems that can be integrated in the machine to perform semi-automatic verification procedures that can be performed frequently by the machine user to monitor the condition of the machine. Calibrated artefact based calibration and verification solutions have an advantage in this field over laser based solutions in terms of cost and feasibility of machine integration, but they need to be optimized for each machine and customer requirements to achieve the required calibration uncertainty and minimize machine occupation time.This paper introduces a digital twin-based methodology to simulate all relevant effects in an artefact-based machine tool calibration procedure, from the machine itself with its expected error ranges, to the artefact geometry and uncertainty, artefact positions in the workspace, probe uncertainty, compensation model, etc. By parameterizing all relevant variables in the design of the calibration procedure, this simulation methodology can be used to analyse the effect of each design variable on the error mapping uncertainty, which is of great help in adapting the procedure to each specific machine and user requirements. The simulation methodology and the analysis possibilities are illustrated by applying it on a 3-axis milling machine tool.  相似文献   
3.
An acoustic emission (AE) experiment was carried out to explore the AE location accuracy influenced by temperature. A hollow hemispherical specimen was used to simulate common underground structures. In the process of heating with the flame, the pulse signal of constant frequency was stimulated as an AE source. Then AE signals received by each sensor were collected and used for comparing localization accuracy at different temperatures. Results show that location errors of AE keep the same phenomenon in the early and middle heating stages. In the later stage of heating, location errors of AE increase sharply due to the appearance of cracks. This provides some beneficial suggestions on decreasing location errors of structural cracks caused by temperature and improves the ability of underground structure disaster prevention and control.  相似文献   
4.
随着网络建设以及信息化教学方法在高校教学过程中的应用普及,越来越多的高校使用在线巡课系统对教师的教学过程进行跟踪和管理,以便发现课堂教学中的亮点、问题和不足。文章提出的在线巡课系统,基于声源定位的技术,对传统的在线巡课系统做出了改进,解决了已有巡课系统中“只闻其声,不见其人”的问题,能够更直观地跟踪到教师的教学过程,包括教学行为以及师生互动过程,有效提升教务人员巡课效果和体验感受。  相似文献   
5.
This paper introduces the potential feasibility that ELID (electrolytic in-process dressing) grinding replaces superfinishing in bearing manufacturing, but ELID grinding will bring new challenges. Different regions present distinguish surface profile due to the non-uniform contact in ELID groove grinding. However, few reports explaining the non-uniform contact are available. This article explores the mechanisms of the non-uniform contact during ELID groove grinding. Experiments on the non-uniform contact between bearing raceway and grinding wheel have been carried out under different conditions. The results show that non-uniform contact exists in ELID groove grinding process and it exerts influence on the profile of the raceway surface. Non-uniform contact influences the Rsk and Rku value all the time, but it influences the Ra value occasionally. Improvement strategies of eliminating the non-uniform contact are also discussed based on the experimental study.  相似文献   
6.
The ‐centroid problem or leader–follower problem is generalized considering different customer choice rules where a customer may use facilities belonging to different firms, if the difference in travel distance (or time) is small enough. Assuming essential goods, some particular customer choice rules are analyzed. Linear programming formulations for the generalized ‐medianoid and ‐centroid problems are presented and an exact solution approach is applied. Some computational examples are included.  相似文献   
7.
During restructuring processes, due to mergers and acquisitions, banks frequently face the problem of having redundant branches competing in the same market. In this work, we introduce a new Capacitated Branch Restructuring Model which extends the available literature in delocation models. It considers both closing down and long term operations׳ costs, and addresses the problem of resizing open branches in order to maintain a constant service level. We consider, as well, the presence of competitors and allow for ceding market share whenever the restructuring costs are prohibitively expensive.We test our model in a real life scenario, obtaining a reduction of about 40% of the network size, and annual savings over 45% in operation costs from the second year on. We finally perform a sensitivity analysis on critical parameters. This analysis shows that the final design of the network depends on certain strategic decisions concerning the redundancy of the branches, as well as their proximity to the demand nodes and to the competitor׳s branches. At the same time, this design is quite robust to changes in the parameters associated with the adjustments on service capacity and with the market reaction.  相似文献   
8.
对AP1000压水堆核电站安全壳贯穿件的非径向管板焊接接头结构特点进行了介绍,并分析其超声检测工艺的重点和难点。通过建立统一的缺陷定位坐标系并结合被检构件的几何特点进行综合分析,推导得出了h值(缺陷回波最高点距套管外壁的距离)的计算方法。为超声检测对这类焊接接头缺陷的准确识别和定位提供了行之有效的方法,为解决这类焊接接头的超声检测技术受限区提供了行之有效的措施。  相似文献   
9.
A new matching cost computation method based on nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) for stereo image matching is proposed in this paper. Firstly, stereo image is decomposed into high frequency sub-band images at different scales and along different directions by NSCT. Secondly, by utilizing coefficients in high frequency domain and grayscales in RGB color space, the computation model of weighted matching cost between two pixels is designed based on the gestalt laws. Lastly, two types of experiments are carried out with standard stereopairs in the Middlebury benchmark. One of the experiments is to confirm optimum values of NSCT scale and direction parameters, and the other is to compare proposed matching cost with nine known matching costs. Experimental results show that the optimum values of scale and direction parameters are respectively 2 and 3, and the matching accuracy of the proposed matching cost is twice higher than that of traditional NCC cost.  相似文献   
10.
The metric representing the wind energy forecast error, when reported as a percent, is calculated quite differently than the error metrics for electricity transmission, electricity load, or in other industries such as manufacturing when they are also reported as a percent. The resulting calculated metric is quite different from what would be reported if the method utilized elsewhere was employed. This paper examines the possible forecast assessment and operational challenges associated with this finding. Concerning the prospects for improvement, the errors reported in MW of energy have a systematic component. With this insight, we developed a model to improve accuracy.  相似文献   
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