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1.
Photocatalytic H2 generation using semiconductor photocatalysts is considered as a cost-effective and eco-friendly technology for solar to energy conversion; however, the present photocatalysts have been recognized to depict low efficiency. Currently, porous coordination polymers known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) constituting flexible and modifiable porous structure and having excess active sites are considered to be appropriate for photocatalytic H2 production. This review highlights current progress in structural development of MOF materials along with modification strategies for enhanced photoactivity. Initially, the review discusses the photocatalytic H2 production mechanism with the concepts of thermodynamics and mass transfer with particular focus on MOFs. Elaboration of the structural categories of MOFs into Type I, Type II, Type III and classification of MOFs for H2 generation into transition metal based, post-transition metal based, noble-metal based and hetero-metal based has been systematically discussed. The review also critically deliberate various modification approaches of band engineering, improvement of charge separation, efficient irradiation utilization and overall efficiency of MOFs including metal modification, heterojunction formation, Z-scheme formation, by introducing electron mediator, and dye based composites. Also, the MOF synthesized derivatives for photocatalytic H2 generation are elaborated. Finally, future perspectives of MOFs for H2 generation and approaches for efficiency improvement have been suggested.  相似文献   
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Research using Internet surveys is an emerging field, yet research on the legitimacy of using Internet studies, particularly those targeting sensitive topics, remains under-investigated. The current study builds on the existing literature by exploring the demographic differences between Internet panel and RDD telephone survey samples, as well as differences in responses with regard to experiences of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization, alcohol and substance use/abuse, PTSD symptomatology, and social support. Analyses indicated that after controlling for demographic differences, there were few differences between the samples in their disclosure of sensitive information, and that the online sample was more socially isolated than the phone sample. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for using Internet samples in research on sensitive topics.  相似文献   
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The catalyst has a significant role in gas processing applications such as reforming technologies for H2 and syngas production. The stable catalyst is requisite for any industrial catalysis application to make it commercially viable. Several methods are employed to synthesize the catalysts. However, there is still a challenge to achieve a controlled morphology and pure catalyst which majorly influences the catalytic activity in reforming applications. The conventional methods are expansive, and the removal of the impurities are major challenges. Nevertheless, it is not straightforward to achieve the desired structure and stability. Therefore, significant interest has been developed on the advanced techniques to take control of the physicochemical properties of the catalyst through non-thermal plasma (NTP) techniques. In this review, the systematic evolution of the catalyst synthesis using NTP technique is elucidated. The emerging DBD plasma to synthesized and effective surface treatment is reviewed. DBD plasma synthesized catalyst performance in reforming application for H2 and syngas production is summarised. Furthermore, the status of DBD plasma for catalyst synthesis and proposed future avenues to design environmentally suitable and cost-effective synthesis techniques are discussed.  相似文献   
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Iranian Polymer Journal - Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposites incorporated with ZnO nanofiller were prepared and examined to study the influence of nanofiller on their properties. All the...  相似文献   
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Plant diseases cause substantial loss to crops all over the world, reducing the quality and quantity of agricultural goods significantly. One of the world’s most damaging plant diseases, rice blast poses a substantial threat to global food security. Magnaporthe oryzae causes rice blast disease, which challenges world food security by causing substantial damage in rice production annually. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved breakdown and recycling system in eukaryotes that regulate homeostasis, stress adaption, and programmed cell death. Recently, new studies found that the autophagy process plays a vital role in the pathogenicity of M. oryzae and the regulation mechanisms are gradually clarified. Here we present a brief summary of the recent advances, concentrating on the new findings of autophagy regulation mechanisms and summarize some autophagy-related techniques in rice blast fungus. This review will help readers to better understand the relationship between autophagy and the virulence of plant pathogenic fungi.  相似文献   
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This paper can be considered as an extension of the work of Tran et al (for monitoring compositional data using a multivariate exponentially weighted moving average MEWMA-compositional data [CoDa] chart) by taking into account potential measurement errors that are known to highly affect production processes. A linearly covariate error model with a constant error variance is used to study the impact of measurement errors on the MEWMA-CoDa control chart. In particular, the influence of the device parameters (σM,b), the number of independent observations m, and the the number of variables p are investigated in terms of the MEWMA optimal couples (r,H) as well as in terms of their corresponding ARLs. A comparison between the Hotelling-CoDa T2 and the proposed chart is made in order to show that the MEWMA-CoDa chart is more efficient in detecting shifts in the presence of measurement errors. A real-life example of muesli production, using multiple measurements for each composition, is used to estimate the parameters and also to demonstrate how the MEWMA-CoDa can handle measurement errors to detect shifts in the process.  相似文献   
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Experiment 1 replicated the Bruce effect, showing pregnancy termination in CF1 strain female mice (Mus musculus) housed underneath novel heterogeneous strain (HS) males. In a 4-arm maze in Experiment 2, inseminated CF1 females approached novel HS males more often than CF1 sires or unfamiliar CF1 males. In Experiment 3, inseminated females showed random nesting sites when housed continuously underneath 4 compartments containing the sire, a novel CF1 male, a novel HS male, and no stimulus. In Experiment 4, when inseminated females were housed with or without the sire below novel HS males, the sire's presence decreased female interaction with novel males and mitigated the Bruce effect. Inseminated females do not reliably avoid males that disturb pregnancy unless the sire is immediately present. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献   
10.
Synergistically improved Lanthanum (La) and Cobalt (Co) co-modified g-C3N4 was synthesized for photocatalytic H2 generation from methanol-water mixture under UV–visible light irradiation. The g-C3N4 was synthesized by thermal polymerization and co-modification was carried out by wet impregnation method. Photocatalytic H2 production by Co2/La1-g-C3N4 was carried out in a slurry photoreactor with the highest H2 production of 250 μmol g?1h?1, which was 2.5, 1.35, and 1.25 times increased as compared to pristine g-C3N4, La1-g-C3N4, and Co2-g-C3N4, respectively. The enhanced activity can be associated with the synergistic effect for proficient charge separation due to electron trapping ability of Co and La, and C–H bond cleavage ability of La for enhanced oxidation. Among the sacrificial agents, highest H2 generation rate was observed with triethanolamine which generated 8.1, 3.6, 1.7, 2.4, and 4.2 times boosted H2 generation than water, ethanol, methanol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol, respectivel, because of the effectual binding of triethanolamine onto amine-containing g-C3N4. Moreover, it also depicted good photostability towards photocatalytic H2 generation. Therefore, Co and La co-modification was proved to be effective for efficient charge separation and reduction of charge carrier's recombination and would be beneficial for other solar energy applications.  相似文献   
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