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1.
《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(8):7097-7110
Biotin (B8), folate (B9), and vitamin B12 (B12) are involved in several metabolic reactions related to energy metabolism. We hypothesized that a low supply of one of these vitamins during the transition period would impair metabolic status. This study was undertaken to assess the interaction between B8 supplement and a supplementation of B9 and B12 regarding body weight (BW) change, dry matter intake, energy balance, and fatty acid (FA) compositions of colostrum and milk fat from d ?21 to 21 relative to calving. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows housed in tie stalls were randomly assigned, according to their previous 305-d milk yield, to 8 incomplete blocks in 4 treatments: (1) a 2-mL weekly i.m. injection of saline (0.9% NaCl; B8?/B9B12?); (2) 20 mg/d of dietary B8 (unprotected from ruminal degradation) and 2-mL weekly i.m. injection of 0.9% NaCl (B8+/B9B12?); (3) 2.6 g/d of dietary B9 (unprotected) and 2-mL weekly i.m. injection of 10 mg of B12 (B8?/B9B12+); (4) 20 mg/d of dietary B8, 2.6 g/d of dietary B9, and 2-mL weekly i.m. injection of 10 mg of B12 (B8+/B9B12+) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Colostrum was sampled at first milking. and milk samples were collected weekly on 2 consecutive milkings and analyzed for FA composition. Body condition score and BW were recorded every week throughout the trial. Within the first 21 d of lactation, B8?/B9B12+ cows had an increased milk yield by 13.5% [45.5 (standard error, SE: 1.8) kg/d] compared with B8?/B9B12? cows [40.1 (SE: 1.9)], whereas B8 supplement had no effect. Even though body condition score was not affected by treatment, B8?/B9B12+ cows had greater BW loss by 24 kg, suggesting higher mobilization of body reserves. Accordingly, milk de novo FA decreased and preformed FA concentration increased in B8?/B9B12+ cows compared with B8?/B9B12? cows. In addition, cows in the B8+/B9B12? group had decreased milk de novo FA and increased preformed FA concentration compared with B8?/B9B12? cows. Treatment had no effect on colostrum preformed FA concentration. Supplemental B8 decreased concentrations of ruminal biohydrogenation intermediates and odd- and branched-chain FA in colostrum and milk fat. Moreover, postpartum dry matter intake for B8+ cows tended to be lower by 1.6 kg/d. These results could indicate ruminal perturbation caused by the B8 supplement, which was not protected from rumen degradation. Under the conditions of the current study, in contrast to B8+/B9B12? cows, B8?/B9B12+ cows produced more milk without increasing dry matter intake, although these cows had greater body fat mobilization in early lactation as suggested by the FA profile and BW loss.  相似文献   
2.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been listed as one of the 100 most important chemicals in the world. However, huge amount of residual H2O2 is hard to timely decomposed into O2 and H2O under acidic condition, easily resulting in explosion hazard. Here, we reported a core–shell structure catalyst, that is graphene with Co N structure encapsulated Co nanoparticles. Co N graphene shell serves as the active site for the H2O2 decomposition, and Co core further enhance this decomposition. Benefiting from it, the H2O2 decomposition were close to 100% after 6 cycles without pH adjustment, which increased 6 orders of magnitude compared with no catalyst. At the same time, the O2 generation reached 99.67% in 2 h with little metal leaching, and ·OH has been greatly inhibited to only 0.08%. This work can cleanly remove H2O2 with little deep oxidation and protect the process of H2O2 utilization to achieve a safer world.  相似文献   
3.
Ammonia is considered as a promising hydrogen or energy carrier. Ammonia absorption or adsorption is an important aspect for both ammonia removal, storage and separation applications. To these ends, a wide range of solid and liquid sorbents have been investigated. Among these, the deep eutectic solvent (DES) is emerging as a promising class of ammonia absorbers. Herein, we report a novel type of DES, i.e., metal-containing DESs for ammonia absorption. Specifically, the NH3 absorption capacity is enhanced by ca. 18.1–36.9% when a small amount of metal chlorides, such as MgCl2, MnCl2 etc., are added into a DES composed of resorcinol (Res) and ethylene glycol (EG). To our knowledge, the MgCl2/Res/EG (0.1:1:2) DES outperforms most of the reported DESs. The excellent NH3 absorption performances of metal–containing DESs have been attributed to the synergy of Lewis acid–base and hydrogen bonding interactions. Additionally, good reversibility and high NH3/CO2 selectivity are achieved over the MgCl2/Res/EG (0.1:1:2) DES, which enables it to be a potential NH3 absorber for further investigations.  相似文献   
4.
This study demonstrates the successful development of hybrid mesoporous siliceous phosphotungstic acid (mPTA-Si) and sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) as a proton exchange membrane with a high performance in hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). SPEEK acts as a polymeric membrane matrix and mPTA-Si acts as the mechanical reinforcer and proton conducting enhancer. Interestingly, incorporating mPTA-Si did not affect the morphological aspect of SPEEK as dense membrane upon loading the amount of mPTA-Si up to 2.5 wt%. The water uptake reduced to 14% from 21.5% when mPTA-Si content increases from 0.5 to 2.5 wt% respectively. Meanwhile, the proton conductivity increased to 0.01 Scm?1 with 1.0 wt% mPTA-Si and maximum power density of 180.87 mWcm?2 which is 200% improvement as compared to pristine SPEEK membrane. The systematic study of hybrid SP-mPTA-Si membrane proved a substantial enhancement in the performance together with further improvement on physicochemical properties of parent SPEEK membrane desirable for the PEMFC application.  相似文献   
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人体大脑和身体的发育,需要从食物中摄取均衡的营养物质。人类大脑是区分人类和其他动物的特征。食物中的必需脂肪酸是机体组织结构和功能的必要组成部分。Omega-6(O6)亚油酸(LA6)是皮肤组织的组成成分,且是炎症、血栓形成、免疫和其他信号分子的前体;Omega-3(O3)α-亚麻酸(ALA3),特别是其长链代谢产物——二十二碳六烯酸(DHA3),是大脑、视网膜和部分神经组织中的关键组分。从富含LA6脂肪酸(缺乏O3脂肪酸)的植物籽中提取出的廉价而优质油脂,是20世纪的西方国家食品工业生产的主要脂肪来源。在代谢通路中,高浓度的LA6脂肪酸可拮抗O3脂肪酸代谢,造成O3脂肪酸不足,因此,在给怀孕动物的饲料中,只提供富含LA6但缺乏O3脂肪酸的油脂作为唯一的脂肪来源,会导致幼崽大脑发育不良。过去20~30年的研究表明,低含量LA6且含DHA3的油脂可改善大脑的功能。近年来的研究较多集中在营养因素对大脑发育的影响,最新研究数据表明,脂肪酸平衡对营养不良儿童的大脑发育尤为重要。世界卫生组织(WHO)越来越重视大脑的营养健康,通过其下属的食品法典委员会,建议用于治疗严重急性营养不良儿童的即食治疗食品中,使用含有均衡脂肪酸组成/构成的脂肪。同样,脂肪酸均衡对老年人可能也很重要。目前,业界已经有了调整油脂成分的方法,以确保脂肪酸均衡,从而维持人体整个生命周期的大脑健康。  相似文献   
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8.
褐煤作为低级煤资源利用率不高,但褐煤中具有腐植酸成分,将褐煤中提取的腐植酸作为化肥原料,提取后剩余残渣作为碳源,与MnS纳米粒子制备了MnS@C复合材料。采用XRD、拉曼光谱、XPS、N2吸附-脱附、SEM和TEM对样品进行了表征。将该复合材料应用于锂离子电池负极材料,对其电化学性能进行了测试。结果表明,MnS@C复合材料的比表面积和孔容分别为117.19m2/g和0.044mL/g,该电极在0.1 A/g电流密度条件下循环200次后比容量高达830 mA‧h/g,且电极容量保持率为99%左右。在0.2、0.4、0.8、1.0、1.2和1.6 A/g电流密度下比容量分别为644、522、427、399、373和348mAh/g,展现出良好的倍率性能。MnS@C复合材料优异的电化学性能得益于碳基体的存在,不仅可以缓解MnS纳米粒子在嵌锂/脱锂过程中的体积膨胀,而且展示了锂离子电池高性能的巨大潜力,为褐煤的高值化利用作出巨大贡献。  相似文献   
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10.
The development of small molecules that can selectively target G-quadruplex (G4) DNAs has drawn considerable attention due to their unique physiological and pathological functions. However, only a few molecules have been found to selectively bind a particular G4 DNA structure. We have developed a fluorescence ligand Q1 , a molecular scaffold with a carbazole–pyridine core bridged by a phenylboronic acid side chain, that acts as a selective ascaris telomere antiparallel G4 DNA ASC20 ligand with about 18 nm blue-shifted and enhanced fluorescence intensity. Photophysical properties revealed that Q1 was sensitive to the microenvironment and gave the best selectivity to ASC20 with an equilibrium binding constant Ka=6.04×105 M−1. Time-resolved fluorescence studies also demonstrated that Q1 showed a longer fluorescence lifetime in the presence of ASC20. The binding characteristics of Q1 with ASC20 were shown in detail in a fluorescent intercalator displacement (FID) assay, a 2-Ap titration experiment and by molecular docking. Ligand Q1 could adopt an appropriate pose at terminal G-quartets of ASC20 through multiple interactions including π–π stacking between aromatic rings; this led to strong fluorescence enhancement. In addition, a co-staining image showed that Q1 is mainly distributed in the cytoplasm. Accordingly, this work provides insights for the development of ligands that selectively targeting a specific G4 DNA structure.  相似文献   
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