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1.
Growing interest in extracellular vesicles (EVs) has prompted the advancements of protocols for improved EV characterization. As a high-throughput, multi-parameter, and single particle technique, flow cytometry is widely used for EV characterization. The comparison of data on EV concentration, however, is hindered by the lack of standardization between different protocols and instruments. Here, we quantified EV counts of platelet-derived EVs, using two flow cytometers (Gallios and CytoFLEX LX) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Phosphatidylserine-exposing EVs were identified by labelling with lactadherin (LA). Calibration with silica-based fluorescent beads showed detection limits of 300 nm and 150 nm for Gallios and CytoFLEX LX, respectively. Accordingly, CytoFLEX LX yielded 40-fold higher EV counts and 13-fold higher counts of LA+CD41+ EVs compared to Gallios. NTA in fluorescence mode (F-NTA) demonstrated that only 9.5% of all vesicles detected in scatter mode exposed phosphatidylserine, resulting in good agreement of LA+ EVs for CytoFLEX LX and F-NTA. Since certain functional characteristics, such as the exposure of pro-coagulant phosphatidylserine, are not equally displayed across the entire EV size range, our study highlights the necessity of indicating the size range of EVs detected with a given approach along with the EV concentration to support the comparability between different studies.  相似文献   
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Semi-synthetic triterpenoids, holding an amino substituted seven-membered A-ring (azepano-ring), which could be synthesized from triterpenic oximes through a Beckmann type rearrangement followed by a reduction of lactame fragment, are considered to be novel promising agents exhibiting anti-microbial, alpha-glucosidase, and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. In this study, in an attempt to develop new antitumor candidates, a series of A-ring azepano- and 3-amino-3,4-seco-derivatives of betulin, oleanolic, ursolic, and glycyrrhetinic acids were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines and non-malignant mouse fibroblasts by means of a colorimetric sulforhodamine assay. Azepanoallobetulinic acid amide derivative 11 was the most cytotoxic compound of this series but showed little selectivity between the different human tumor cell lines. Flow cytometry experiments showed compound 11 to act mainly by apoptosis (44.3%) and late apoptosis (21.4%). The compounds were further screened at the National Cancer Institute towards a panel of 60 cancer cell lines. It was found that compounds 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 15, 16, 19, and 20 showed growth inhibitory (GI50) against the most sensitive cell lines at submicromolar concentrations (0.20–0.94 μM), and their cytotoxic activity (LC50) was also high (1–6 μM). Derivatives 3, 8, 11, 15, and 16 demonstrated a certain selectivity profile at GI50 level from 5.16 to 9.56 towards K-562, CCRF-CEM, HL-60(TB), and RPMI-8226 (Leukemia), HT29 (Colon cancer), and OVCAR-4 (Ovarian cancer) cell lines. Selectivity indexes of azepanoerythrodiol 3 at TGI level ranged from 5.93 (CNS cancer cell lines SF-539, SNB-19 and SNB-75) to 14.89 for HCT-116 (colon cancer) with SI 9.56 at GI50 level for the leukemia cell line K-562. The present study highlighted the importance of A-azepano-ring in the triterpenic core for the development of novel antitumor agents, and a future aim to increase the selectivity profile will thus lie in the area of modifications of azepano-triterpenic acids at their carboxyl group.  相似文献   
3.
Cell encapsulation within hydrogel droplets is transforming what is feasible in multiple fields of biomedical science such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in vitro modeling, and cell-based therapies. Recent advances have allowed researchers to miniaturize material encapsulation complexes down to single-cell scales, where each complex, termed a single-cell microgel, contains only one cell surrounded by a hydrogel matrix while remaining <100 μm in size. With this achievement, studies requiring single-cell resolution are now possible, similar to those done using liquid droplet encapsulation. Of particular note, applications involving long-term in vitro cultures, modular bioinks, high-throughput screenings, and formation of 3D cellular microenvironments can be tuned independently to suit the needs of individual cells and experimental goals. In this progress report, an overview of established materials and techniques used to fabricate single-cell microgels, as well as insight into potential alternatives is provided. This focused review is concluded by discussing applications that have already benefited from single-cell microgel technologies, as well as prospective applications on the cusp of achieving important new capabilities.  相似文献   
4.
王海宁  池卓哲 《包装工程》2021,42(12):84-90, 97
目的 为了更科学地研究和检验可穿戴产品的适合性,提出一种适合性检验方法,能够精确保留现实环境中的产品佩戴关系,并能将现实与虚拟的适合性检验研究相结合,得到合理的适合性检验结果.方法 以虚拟现实眼镜的适合性检验为例,通过高精度的三维测量技术将现实环境中的人、产品以及人—产品佩戴关系转化为三维虚拟信息,并以人—产品佩戴三维模型为参考基准对齐人和产品的虚拟模型,得到保留现实佩戴关系的人—产品佩戴模型组,再应用偏差分析法得出人—机佩戴区域的可视化适合性结果和统计数据,结合主观评价方法进一步分析产品的适合性.结论 虚实结合的产品适合性检验方法可在虚拟环境中高精度地保留现实环境中的人—产品佩戴关系,并能得到可视化的适合性检验结果,为检验和指导产品的适合性提供依据.  相似文献   
5.
To benefit from recent advances in modeling and computational algorithms,as well as the availability of new covariance data,sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are needed to quantify the impact of uncertain sources on the design parameters of small prismatic high-temperature gas-cooled reactors(HTGRs).In particular,the contribution of nuclear data to the keff uncertainty is an important part of the uncertainty analysis of small-sized HTGR physical calculations.In this study,a small-sized HTGR designed by China Nuclear Power Engineering Co.,Ltd.was selected for keff uncertainty analysis during full lifetime burnup calculations.Models of the cold zero power(CZP)condition and full lifetime burnup process were constructed using the Reactor Monte Carlo Code RMC for neutron transport calculation,depletion calculation,and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis.For the sensitivity analysis,the Contribution-Linked eigenvalue sensitivity/Uncertainty estimation via Track length importance Characterization(CLUTCH)method was applied to obtain sensitive infor-mation,and the"sandwich"method was used to quantify the keff uncertainty.We also compared the keff uncertainties to other typical reactors.Our results show that 235U is the largest contributor to keff uncertainty for both the CZP and depletion conditions,while the contribution of 239Pu is not very significant because of the design of low discharge burnup.It is worth noting that the radioactive capture reaction of 28Si significantly contributes to the keff uncer-tainty owing to its specific fuel design.However,the keff uncertainty during the full lifetime depletion process was relatively stable,only increasing by 1.12%owing to the low discharge burnup design of small-sized HTGRs.These numerical results are beneficial for neutronics design and core parameters optimization in further uncertainty prop-agation and quantification study for small-sized HTGR.  相似文献   
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Background: Recently, it was reported that leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4, also called GPR48) is another receptor for RANKL and was shown to compete with RANK to bind RANKL and suppress canonical RANK signaling during osteoclast differentiation. The critical role of the protein triad RANK–RANKL in osteoclastogenesis has made their binding an important target for the development of drugs against osteoporosis. In this study, point-mutations were introduced in the RANKL protein based on the crystal structure of the RANKL complex and its counterpart receptor RANK, and we investigated whether LGR4 signaling in the absence of the RANK signal could lead to the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis.; Methods: The effects of point-mutated RANKL (mRANKL-MT) on osteoclastogenesis were assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), resorption pit formation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), western blot, NFATc1 nuclear translocation, micro-CT and histomorphological assay in wild type RANKL (mRANKL-WT)-induced in vitro and in vivo experimental mice model. Results: As a proof of concept, treatment with the mutant RANKL led to the stimulation of GSK-3β phosphorylation, as well as the inhibition of NFATc1 translocation, mRNA expression of TRAP and OSCAR, TRAP activity, and bone resorption, in RANKL-induced mouse models; and Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrate that the mutant RANKL can be used as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis by inhibiting RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis via comparative inhibition of RANKL. Moreover, the mutant RANKL was found to lack the toxic side effects of most osteoporosis treatments.  相似文献   
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Fire spread and growth on real‐scale four cushion mock‐ups of residential upholstered furniture (RUF) were investigated with the goal of identifying whether changes in five classes of materials (barrier, flexible polyurethane foam, polyester fiber wrap, upholstery fabric, and sewing thread), referred to as factors, resulted in statistically significant changes in burning behavior. A fractional factorial experimental design plus practical considerations yielded a test matrix with 20 material combinations. Experiments were repeated a minimum of two times. Measurements included fire spread rates derived from video recordings and heat release rates (HRRs). A total of 13 experimental parameters (3 based on the videos and 10 on the HRR results), referred to as responses, characterized the measurements. Statistical analyses based on Main Effects Plots (main effects) and Block Plots (main effects and factor interactions) were used. The results showed that three of the factors resulted in statistically significant effects on varying numbers of the 13 responses. The Barrier and Fabric factors had the strongest main effects with roughly comparable magnitudes. Foam was statistically significant for fewer of the responses and its overall strength was weaker than for Barrier and Fabric. No statistically significant main effects were identified for Wrap or Thread. Multiple two‐term interactions between factors were identified as being statistically significant. The Barrier*Fabric interaction resulted in the highest number of and strongest statistically significant effects. The existence of two‐term interactions means that it will be necessary to consider their effects in approaches designed to predict the burning behavior of RUF.  相似文献   
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