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1.
The effect of microwave roasting parameters (300, 450 and 600 W; 5, 10 and 15 min) on acrylamide content in sorghum grain was determined using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-photo diode array (PDA) detector coupled with C-18 column. Samples roasted at 300 and 450 W did not possess acrylamide, whereas 600 W (15 min) favoured formation of 2740.19 µg/kg of acrylamide, levels far exceeding the defined European Union (EU) limits. The chronic daily intake (CDI) for acrylamide through consumption of such grain flour was 3.25–9.5-fold higher to Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) defined high exposure limits. The margin of exposure (MOE) values ranged from 4.3 to 12.76 and from 11.07 to 32.27 for neoplastic and neurological effects, respectively, demonstrating high exposure and serious health concerns associated with dietary intake of this toxicant. This study assesses the risk for the Indian population and highlights the importance of optimising process parameters for food product to minimise such exposure risks.  相似文献   
2.
This work aimed to examine the performance of the hybrid sintering of clay ceramic in a microwave furnace, compared to the sintering process in a conventional furnace. The raw materials were subjected to X-ray fluorescence, loss on ignition (LOI), X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, real specific mass, and thermogravimetric analyses. The red clay ceramic mass was prepared, extruded, pre-sintered in a conventional furnace at 600°C/60 min, and sintered at temperatures between 700 °C and 1100 °C. The sintering conventional (resistive oven) was carried out for 60 min with a heating rate of 10°C/min. In the microwave furnace, the sintering times were 5, 10, and 15 min, with a heating rate of 50°C/min, with a sintering chamber coated with silicon carbide (susceptor). The sintered specimens were characterized according to linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent specific mass, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy analysis, spectroscopy analysis in the ultraviolet and visible regions, microhardness, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that microwave sintering promoted an increase in the microhardness and apparent specific mass, and reduction in water absorption and apparent porosity values, due to greater densification in the microstructure. The best results occurred for specimens sintered at 1100°C.  相似文献   
3.
The present work was conducted to illustrate the mechanism of gel formation of myofibrillar proteins (MPs) under different microwave heating times. The results showed that the denaturation enthalpy (ΔH) of the MPs significantly decreased when the heating time increased from 3 to 9 s and then completely disappeared as the heating time progressed, indicating that the MPs gradually denatured and subsequently aggregated with increasing heating time, which was further verified by the changes in the secondary structure, electrophoretic bands, and gel properties (e.g., water holding capacity and textural profiles) of the MPs. Microstructural images indicated that the MP gel formed under 12 s had the most compact network, indicating that extended microwave heating time could induce quality deterioration of MP gels. Moreover, the hydrophobic forces, electrostatic forces, and disulphide bonds of the MPs gradually intensified with increasing microwave heating time, suggesting that both non-covalent and covalent bonds could promote molecular denaturation and subsequent aggregation of MPs. In addition, correlation analysis revealed that the changes in the molecular conformation of MPs induced by different microwave heating times could effectively regulate the formation of MP gels and their related properties.  相似文献   
4.
ZnO rice like nonarchitects are grafted on the graphene carbon core via a rapid microwave synthesis route. The prepared grafted systems are characterized via XRD, SEM, RAMAN, and XPS to examined the structural and morphological parameters. Zinc oxide grafted graphene sheets (ZnO-G) are further doped in β-phase of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) to prepare the polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) via mixed solvent approach (THF/DMF). β-phase confirmation of PVDF PNCs is done by FTIR studies. It is observed that ZnO-G filler enhances the β-phase content in the PNCs. Non-doped PVDF and PNCs are further studied for rheological behavior under the shear rate of 1–100 s−1. Doping of ZnO-G dopant to the PVDF matrix changes its discontinuous shear thickening (DST) behavior to continues shear thickening behavior (CST). Hydrocluster formation and their interaction with the dopant could be the reason for this striking DST to CST behavioral change. Strain amplitude sweep (10−3% -10%) oscillatory test reveals that the PNCs shows extended linear viscoelastic region with high elastic modulus and lower viscous modulus. Effective shear thickening behavior and strong elastic strength of these PNCs present their candidature for various fields including mechanical and soft body armor applications.  相似文献   
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Microwave lignite drying with assistance of biomass-derived char was addressed and effect of bio-char on drying rate and energy consumption was investigated in this work. Effective diffusion coefficient and activation energy for the drying process were also analyzed. The results indicated the drying process was largely dependent on the variation of sample temperature. Bio-char originated from pine wood was most favorable for lignite drying, considering its better promoting effect and advanced security. There existed an optimal bio-char addition ratio for drying process at different power. The corresponding optimal ratio was 10% at 231?W and 15% at 385?W, at which the biggest drying rate and the least energy consumption were reached. It was compared lignite drying initiated at 385?W was better for energy conservation. Effective diffusivity was improved and activation energy was simultaneously reduced, with the addition of bio-char. The minimum activation energy was 15.54?W?·?g?1, which was gained at bio-char addition ratio of 10%. The results revealed the effect of bio-char on depressing activation energy could rival that of metal-based additives. The drying process with assistance of microwave and bio-char could present technical and economical benefits on lignite upgrading.  相似文献   
8.
Structures and properties of myofibrillar protein gel prepared at different power (300–800 W) were evaluated. Amino acid analysis demonstrated that changes in microwave power did not alter primary structure of gel. However, an increase in microwave power could change higher structures of gel. As microwave power increased, α-helix content decreased and β-sheet content increased. Increased microwave power probably facilitated protein to unfold and expose the internal groups, causing surface hydrophobicity and the formation of disulphide bonds were enhanced, which indicated changes in tertiary and quaternary structures of protein. At 500 W, gel had the best ultrastructure where surface morphology, springiness and water holding capacity reached the optimum. Our findings suggested that microwave at an appropriate power (500 W) could change higher structures of myofibrillar protein gel to achieve desired processing and quality protein gel characteristics.  相似文献   
9.
SrLa[Ga1−x(R0.5Ti0.5)x]O4 (R = Mg, Zn) ceramics were prepared by a standard solid state sintering method. The single-phase ceramics with K2NiF4-type layered perovskite structure and I4/mmm space group were obtained, indicating that SrLa(R0.5Ti0.5) and SrLaGaO4 can form the unlimited solid solutions. With increasing x for = Mg and Zn, εr increases monotonously, the Qf value first increases and then decreases, while τf increases from a negative to a positive value. The optimized microwave dielectric properties were obtained as following: εr = 23.3, Qf = 89 400 GHz, τf = −0.8 ppm/°C for SrLa[Ga0.6(Mg0.5Ti0.5)0.4]O4 and εr = 23.3, Qf = 76 200 GHz, τf = 0.2 ppm/°C for SrLa[Ga0.7(Zn0.5Ti0.5)0.3]O4, indicating that the present solid solution ceramics are the promising candidates as microwave resonator materials for the telecommunication applications.  相似文献   
10.
Rice straw is the most abundant agricultural residue on a global scale and is widely available as feedstock for cellulosic fuel production. However, it is highly recalcitrant to biochemical deconstruction and also generates inhibitors that affect enzymatic saccharification. Rice straw from eastern Arkansas was subjected to dilute acid pretreatment (160 °C, 48 min and 1.0% sulfuric acid) and solid-state fermentation with two lignocellulolytic fungi, Trametes hirsuta and Myrothecium roridum, and their saccharification efficacies were compared. T. hirsuta and M. roridum were tested separately; pretreatment of rice straw with either strain for seven days resulted in 19 and 70% enrichment of its holocellulose content, respectively. However, liquid chromatography analysis of the alkali extracts showed significant differences in cell wall degradation by T. hirsuta and M. roridum. T. hirsuta removed 15% more phenolic compounds and 38% more glucan than M. roridum, while M. roridum removed 77% more xylan than T. hirsuta. Fungal and dilute acid pretreated biomass was then hydrolyzed using Accellerase® 1500, a saccharification cocktail. Saccharification efficiency of M. roridum was 37% higher than that of dilute acid pretreatment of rice straw, requiring 8% lower enzyme loading and 50% shorter enzymatic hydrolysis duration. Alkali extraction of fungal pretreated biomass also yielded 10–15 g kg−1 of acid precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL), which is a valuable co-product for biorefineries. In comparison to dilute acid pretreatment, fungal pretreatment could be a cost-effective alternative for the degradation of recalcitrant biomass, such as rice straw.  相似文献   
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