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1.
The effect of microwave roasting parameters (300, 450 and 600 W; 5, 10 and 15 min) on acrylamide content in sorghum grain was determined using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-photo diode array (PDA) detector coupled with C-18 column. Samples roasted at 300 and 450 W did not possess acrylamide, whereas 600 W (15 min) favoured formation of 2740.19 µg/kg of acrylamide, levels far exceeding the defined European Union (EU) limits. The chronic daily intake (CDI) for acrylamide through consumption of such grain flour was 3.25–9.5-fold higher to Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) defined high exposure limits. The margin of exposure (MOE) values ranged from 4.3 to 12.76 and from 11.07 to 32.27 for neoplastic and neurological effects, respectively, demonstrating high exposure and serious health concerns associated with dietary intake of this toxicant. This study assesses the risk for the Indian population and highlights the importance of optimising process parameters for food product to minimise such exposure risks.  相似文献   
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Rice straw is the most abundant agricultural residue on a global scale and is widely available as feedstock for cellulosic fuel production. However, it is highly recalcitrant to biochemical deconstruction and also generates inhibitors that affect enzymatic saccharification. Rice straw from eastern Arkansas was subjected to dilute acid pretreatment (160 °C, 48 min and 1.0% sulfuric acid) and solid-state fermentation with two lignocellulolytic fungi, Trametes hirsuta and Myrothecium roridum, and their saccharification efficacies were compared. T. hirsuta and M. roridum were tested separately; pretreatment of rice straw with either strain for seven days resulted in 19 and 70% enrichment of its holocellulose content, respectively. However, liquid chromatography analysis of the alkali extracts showed significant differences in cell wall degradation by T. hirsuta and M. roridum. T. hirsuta removed 15% more phenolic compounds and 38% more glucan than M. roridum, while M. roridum removed 77% more xylan than T. hirsuta. Fungal and dilute acid pretreated biomass was then hydrolyzed using Accellerase® 1500, a saccharification cocktail. Saccharification efficiency of M. roridum was 37% higher than that of dilute acid pretreatment of rice straw, requiring 8% lower enzyme loading and 50% shorter enzymatic hydrolysis duration. Alkali extraction of fungal pretreated biomass also yielded 10–15 g kg−1 of acid precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL), which is a valuable co-product for biorefineries. In comparison to dilute acid pretreatment, fungal pretreatment could be a cost-effective alternative for the degradation of recalcitrant biomass, such as rice straw.  相似文献   
4.
The effect of biochar substituted for anthracite as reductant on magnetizing-roasting pyrite cinder was investigated.The key of magnetizing-roasting is the gasification reaction between reductants and CO2.Since biochar could react with CO2 more rapidly at lower temperature,the reactivity of biochar is better than that of anthracite.The gasification of biochar could produce reducing condition ofφCO/(φCO+φCO2)about 10%-20% between 700-800 ℃,which is in accord with the atmosphere and temperature of Fe2O3 reduction.So it is beneficial to the reduction of iron mineral of pyrite cinder.Compared with anthracite,biochar could decrease the roasting temperature from825 to 750 ℃ and roasting time from 20 to 15min,which shows that a better effect of magnetization could be obtained in the condition of lower temperature and shorter time.Using biochar as reductant,iron concentrate extracted from pyrite cinder as about 64%iron grade could be produced,and the recovery is over 90% under the condition of above 90% grinding particle less than 0.045 mm and magnetic intensity of 0.124-0.194 T.  相似文献   
5.
硫化物预处理方法研究及测定中的质量保证   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
黄敏 《水资源保护》2006,22(1):78-80
针对水和废水中硫离子的特点,设计制作了测定硫化物的酸化—吹气—吸收预处理装置,并验证了该装置对硫化物的回收效果,简化了原来的预处理方法。总结分光测定过程中注意的若干事项,确定了最佳实验条件,使该方法具有更准确、简便、快速的特点。  相似文献   
6.
陶瓷表面化学镀的前处理工艺新进展   总被引:9,自引:1,他引:8  
综述了非金属表面化学镀前处理工艺的现状和发展,对陶瓷化学镀的粗化和活化工艺的新进展进行了评述,侧重讨论了离子型、胶体钯型、浆料型、分子自组装吸附钯型、贱金属型活化工艺特点和进展,并展望了今后发展方向。  相似文献   
7.
JFC磷酸酯的合成和应用   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
杨俊玲 《染整技术》2002,24(4):35-36
详述了JFC磷酸酯的合成工艺路线,以及它在织物前处理精练工艺中的应用。与其它磷酸酯类精练剂性能对比,证明它可作为一种性能优良的精练剂中的添加剂。  相似文献   
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氨氮监测采用预蒸馏处理后,比色测定结果明显偏低。在样品预蒸馏处理过程中,硼酸作为吸收液,使显色时溶液pH值偏低,导致显色不充分是其主要影响因素。通过采取增加显色剂加入量的方法,解决了显色pH值偏低的问题,得到满意的测定结果。  相似文献   
9.
Previous work has shown that the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse could be greatly enhanced by peracetic acid (PAA) pretreatment. There are several factors affecting the enzymatic digestibility of the biomass, including lignin and hemicelluloses content, cellulose crystallinity, acetyl group content, accessible surface area and so on. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of the enhancement of enzymatic digestibility caused by PAA pretreatment. Delignification resulted in an increase of the surface area and reduction of the irreversible absorption of cellulase, which helped to increase the enzymatic digestibility. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum showed that the absorption peaks of aromatic skeletal vibrations were weakened or disappeared after PAA pretreatment. However, the infrared crystallization index (N.O'KI) was increased. X‐ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the crystallinity of PAA‐treated samples was increased owing to the partial removal of amorphous lignin and hemicelluloses and probable physical change of cellulose. The effect of acetyl group content on enzymatic digestibility is negligible compared with the degree of delignification and crystallinity. The results indicate that enhancement of enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse by PAA pretreatment is achieved mainly by delignification and an increase in the surface area and exposure of cellulose fibers. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry  相似文献   
10.
锌精矿制粒沸腾焙烧新工艺的应用与改进   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
介绍了锌精矿制粒沸腾焙烧新工艺的工业化生产应用与技术改进情况 ,阐述了取得的成果及存在的问题  相似文献   
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