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1.
The development of cost-effective bifunctional catalysts with excellent performance and good stability is of great significance for overall water splitting. In this work, NiFe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanosheets are prepared on nickel foam by hydrothermal method, and then Ni2P(O)–Fe2P(O)/CeOx nanosheets are in situ synthesized by electrodeposition and phosphating on NiFe LDHs. The obtained self-supporting Ni2P(O)–Fe2P(O)/CeOx exhibit excellent catalytic performances in alkaline solution due to more active sites and fast electron transport. When the current density is 10 mA cm?2, the overpotential of hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction are 75 mV and 268 mV, respectively. In addition, driven by two Ni2P(O)–Fe2P(O)/CeOx electrodes, the alkaline battery can reach 1.45 V at 10 mA cm?2.  相似文献   
2.
Constructing efficient and stable bifunctional electrocatalysts for overall water splitting remains a challenge because of the sluggish reaction kinetics. Herein, the core-shell hybrids composed of Co(PO3)2 nanorod core and NiFe alloy shell in situ grown on nickel foam (NiFe/Co(PO3)2@NF) are synthesized. Owing to the hierarchical palm-leaf-like structures and strong adhesion between NiFe alloys, Co(PO3)2 and substrates, the catalyst provides a large surface area and rapid charge transfer, which facilitates active sites exposure and conductivity enhancement. The interfacial effect in the NiFe/Co(PO3)2 core-shell structure modulates the electronic structure of the active sites around the boundary, thereby boosting the intrinsic activity. Benefiting from the stable structure, the durability of the catalyst is not impaired by the inevitable surface reconfiguration. The NiFe/Co(PO3)2@NF electrode presents a low cell voltage of 1.63 V to achieve 10 mA cm?2 and manifests durability for up to 36 h at different current densities.  相似文献   
3.
对浸矿后离子型稀土原地浸矿场采用清水进行淋洗,在184天的清水淋洗过程中,尾水氨氮值从最开始的507mg/L,降低至140mg/L,淋洗尾水pH4.52~3.10。淋洗尾水采用两级反渗透膜分离,既回收有价资源稀土,又能使出水氨氮达标。结果表明,产水氨氮浓度稳定低于15mg/L,对稀土的截留率高于98.25%,浓水中稀土离子平均浓度313.4mg/L,可进一步回收稀土资源。  相似文献   
4.
曹辉林 《金属矿山》2022,51(2):231-236
针对赤泥等固体废弃物对环境危害性大且利用率低等问题,以碱激发赤泥-矿渣基地聚物注浆材料为 研究对象,研究了不同掺量的聚羧酸(PA)减水剂、醛酮缩合物(AKC)减水剂和萘系(N)减水剂对材料凝结时间、流动 性及强度等的影响,并通过 XRD、傅里叶红外光谱及 SEM 等设备对减水剂的作用机理进行研究。 结果表明:减水剂增 强了材料的流动性但降低了材料的剪切应力;N 和 PA 减水剂能缩短材料的凝结时间,但 AKC 减水剂会延长材料的凝 结时间;N 和 AKC 减水剂能提高材料的强度,但 PA 减水剂会降低材料的强度;N 减水剂对材料的综合性能提升效果 更加明显,其最优掺量为 0. 7%;减水剂对赤泥-矿渣基地聚物性能提升的作用机理主要是促进地聚合物凝胶的形成。 研究成果为拓展赤泥在工程上的使用途径和效率提供了理论指导。  相似文献   
5.
In order to reveal the mechanism of water fog explosion suppression and research the combined effect of water fog and obstacle on hydrogen/air deflagration, multiple sets of experiments were set up. The results show that the instability of thermal diffusion under lean combustion conditions is the main influencing factor of hydrogen/air flame surface instability, and the existence of water fog will aggravate the hydrogen/air flame surface instability. When obstacle is not considered, 8 μm, 15 μm, 30 μm water fog can significantly reduce the flame velocity and explosion overpressure of hydrogen/air, 45 μm fine water fog plays the opposite role. When considering the relative position of the water fog release position and the obstacle, the 8 μm, 15 μm, 30 μm water fog has almost no suppression effect when released near the obstacle, but a significant suppression effect occur, when using the 45 μm water fog. In the field of theoretical research, the research results not only provide an experimental basis for the fine water fog to reduce the consequences of hydrogen explosion accidents, and the optimal diameter range used by the water fog, but also provide experimental reference for the numerical simulation of hydrogen/air explosion suppression in semi-open space, and promote the development of hydrogen explosion suppression theory. In terms of engineering applications, this study can provide a theoretical basis for the layout of fire fighting equipment in the engine room of nuclear power plants or hydrogen-powered ships.  相似文献   
6.
Corrosion and salt deposition problems severely restrict the industrialization of supercritical water oxidation. Transpiring wall reactor can effectively weaken these two problems by a protective water film. In this work, methanol was selected as organic matter, and the influences of vital structural parameters on water film properties and organic matter removal were studied via numerical simulation. The results indicate that higher than 99% of methanol conversion could be obtained and hardly affected by transpiration water layer, transpiring wall porosity and inner diameter. Increasing layer and porosity reduced reactor center temperature, but inner diameter's influence was lower relatively. Water film temperature reduced but coverage rate raised as layer, porosity, and inner diameter increased. Notably, the whole reactor was in supercritical state and coverage rate was only approximately 85% in the case of one layer. Increasing reactor length affected slightly the volume of the upper supercritical zone but enlarged the subcritical zone.  相似文献   
7.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(21):31695-31704
In this study, ceramic membranes made of montmorillonite, perlite and iron were used to remove As(III) from water. Membranes prepared with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt% of iron content were used to filtrate As(III) synthetic water and surface water solutions. As(III) adsorption capacity and removal efficiency, and other parameters such as cations and anions content, turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity were used to evaluate the membranes' performance. Results show that the As(III) adsorption/removal capacity of membranes was improved by the addition of iron. Adsorption capacity of 7.5 μg As(III)/g and removal efficiency of 97% can be achieved in membranes with 1.0 wt% of iron filings content for surface water; however, a greater amount of iron in the membrane structure limits the adsorption capacity of As(III). Besides the capacity of ceramic membranes to adsorb/remove As(III), membranes were also effective to remove other ions, turbidity, and electrical conductivity from the surface water. The addition of iron to the ceramic membranes enhanced their capacity to remove such surface water constituents. These results are important from the practical viewpoint showing the potential of ceramic membranes for the removal of metalloids and other water constituents. Langmuir isotherm model best described the adsorption process in ceramic membranes, suggesting that adsorption of As(III) happened on a monolayered surface of the ceramic membrane.  相似文献   
8.
为研究既有线有砟轨道路基的翻浆冒泥机理,自主研发了一套能够模拟循环荷载–湿化耦合作用的模型试验系统。模型试样直径500 mm,由厚度分别为350 mm的路基土和200 mm的道砟组成,整个试样在高强度透明有机玻璃模型筒中制备完成。模型试验系统配备有监测荷载、位移、体积含水率和孔隙水压力的4种传感器,并通过高清相机对颗粒迁移过程进行图像捕捉。基于所研发的试验系统,针对辛泰铁路典型翻浆冒泥病害路段土样,开展翻浆冒泥模型试验。试验结果表明:动孔隙水压力是导致翻浆冒泥病害产生的关键因素。随着体积含水率的增加,动孔隙水压力引起的颗粒迁移量逐渐增加;在饱和状态下,会引起大量颗粒迁移,翻浆冒泥现象显著。试验结束时,道砟污染指数达到25%,在实际工程中已严重影响铁路的正常运营,有必要对污染道砟进行换填。  相似文献   
9.
为探究泵站进水流速大小与泵站进水池水流流态、漩涡的产生与发展变化规律,结合泵站实际运行情况,建立引渠、前池、进水池和进水管的泵站物理模型和湍流数学模型,采用VOF模型和非定常的SST k-ω湍流模型对9种不同流速的泵站进水水流特性进行数值模拟,分析不同进水流速的泵站进水池水流流场分布、漩涡涡量的变化及分布规律。研究结果表明:当进水流速为0.322 2~0.564 2 m/s时,泵站表面漩涡的强度随进水流速的增大而增强:当进水流速为0.322 2~0.401 6 m/s时,进水池出现Ⅲ、Ⅳ型漩涡;当进水流速为0.483 5 m/s时,进水池出现Ⅴ型漩涡;当进水流速为0.520 8~0.564 2 m/s时,进水池出现Ⅵ型漩涡。将数值计算结果与模型试验结果进行对比,两者基本吻合。研究结果可为泵站工程设计提供参考。  相似文献   
10.
通过调研现场情况以及检测煤泥特性,探寻一种实用性强、方法简单的新工艺来替代劳累的人工和繁琐的机械清淤,解决现实问题。针对实际情况开发清仓新工艺,介绍了该工艺的技术路线选择、设计依据以及实际应用效果。该新工艺具有降低清仓时间、减轻工人劳动强度、设备操作简单、实用性强等特点。  相似文献   
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