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1.
In this study, the separation of hydrogen from gas mixtures using a palladium membrane coupled with a vacuum environment on the permeate side was studied experimentally. The gas mixtures composed of H2, N2, and CO2 were used as the feed. Hydrogen permeation fluxes were measured with membrane operating temperature in the range of 320–380 °C, pressures on the retentate side in the range of 2–5 atm, and vacuum pressures on the permeate side in the range of 15–51 kPa. The Taguchi method was used to design the operating conditions for the experiments based on an orthogonal array. Using the measured H2 permeation fluxes from the Taguchi approach, the stepwise regression analysis was also employed for establishing the prediction models of H2 permeation flux, followed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify the significance and suitability of operating conditions. Based on both the Taguchi approach and ANOVA, the H2 permeation flux was mostly affected by the gas mixture composition, followed by the retentate side pressure, the vacuum degree, and the membrane temperature. The predicted optimal operating conditions were the gas mixture with 75% H2 and 25% N2, the membrane temperature of 320 °C, the retentate side pressure of 5 atm, and the vacuum degree of 51 kPa. Under these conditions, the H2 permeation flux was 0.185 mol s?1 m?2. A second-order normalized regression model with a relative error of less than 7% was obtained based on the measured H2 permeation flux.  相似文献   
2.
Micro-cracks commonly occur on the catalyst layers (CLs) during the manufacturing of catalyst coated membranes (CCMs). However, the crack shape parameters effect on CLs in-plane (IP) electronic conductivity λs is not clear. In this work, the relationship between crack parameters and the λs is obtained based on the two-dimensional (2D) multiple-relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The LBM numerical model is validated by the normalized λs experiment applied on three different home-made cracked CLs, and the parameter study focus on crack width, length, quantity and phase angle are carried out. The results show that the decrease of λs has different sensitivity |k| to the parameters above. The crack width has little effect on λs decrease, and the |kw| is 0.038. However, crack arm length and quantity show more significant impact, which |kl| and |kN| are 0.753 and 0.725, respectively. The CLs with different crack propagation directions show significant anisotropy on λs, and a 53.53% decrease in λs is observed between 0° and 90° crack phase angle change. To manufacture a high electronic conductivity CL, crack initiation and migration mitigation are highly encouraged.  相似文献   
3.
为研究低压静电场辅助冷冻对竹笋冻结特性的影响,以冻结曲线、硬度、水分损失率、水分迁移、冰晶形态和组织微观结构为指标,探究低压静电场辅助冷冻(-35 ℃)和普通冷冻(-35 ℃)条件下竹笋品质的变化规律。结果表明:低压静电场辅助冷冻提高了冻结效率,改变了冰晶形态及分布,减轻了组织微观结构破损程度,改善了解冻汁液流失情况。与静电板间距10、20、30、40 cm处的冷冻竹笋解冻后水分损失率分别为14.16%、12.58%、9.73%、10.44%,显著低于对照组(21.01%)(P<0.05),硬度分别为461.19、507.48、496.65 g和455.31 g,显著高于对照组(350.70 g)(P<0.05)。低场核磁共振分析结果表明,在低压静电场辅助冷冻下竹笋解冻后汁液流失减少,扫描电子显微镜观察结果显示,竹笋纤维排列整齐,组织微观结构保持较好。低压静电场辅助冷冻可有效改善竹笋品质,可为利用低压静电场进行果蔬的冷冻贮藏和冷链运输提供参考。  相似文献   
4.
以智能反射面(intelligent reflecting surface,IRS)辅助的无线携能通信(simultaneous wireless information and power transfer,SWIPT)系统为背景,研究了该系统中基于能效优先的多天线发送端有源波束成形与IRS无源波束成形联合设计与优化方法。以最大化接收端的最小能效为优化目标,构造在发送端功率、接收端能量阈值、IRS相移等多约束下的非线性优化问题,用交替方向乘子法(alternating direction method of multipliers,ADMM)求解。采用Dinkelbach算法转化目标函数,通过奇异值分解(singular value decomposition,SVD)和半定松弛(semi-definite relaxation,SDR)得到发送端有源波束成形向量。采用SDR得到IRS相移矩阵与反射波束成形向量。结果表明,该系统显著降低了系统能量收集(energy harvesting,EH)接收端的能量阈值。当系统总电路功耗为?15 dBm时,所提方案的用户能效为300 KB/J。当IRS反射阵源数与发送天线数均为最大值时,系统可达最大能效。  相似文献   
5.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report the preparation of a dotted nanowire arrayed by 5 nm sized palladium and nickel composite nanoparticles (denoted as PdxNiy NPs) via a hydrothermal method using NU and PdO·H2O as the starting materials. The samples prepared at the mass ratio of NU to PdO·H2O 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 were, respectively, nominated as catalyst c1, c2 and c3. The chemical compositions of all synthesized catalysts were mainly studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), revealing that metallic Ni was one main component of all prepared catalysts. Surprisingly, the main diffraction peaks appearing in the XRD patterns of all prepared catalysts were assigned to the metallic Ni rather than the metallic Pd. Very interestingly, as indicated by the TEM images, a large number of dotted nanowires arrayed by numerous equidistant 5 nm sized nanoparticles were distinctly exhibited in catalyst c1. More importantly, when being used as electrocatalysts for EOR, all prepared catalysts exhibited an evident electrocatalytic activity towards EOR. In the cyclic voltammetry (CV) test, the peak current density of the forward peak of EOR on catalyst c1 measured at 50 mV s?1 was as high as 56.1 mA cm?2, being almost 9 times higher than that of EOR on catalyst c3 (6.3 mA cm?2). Particularly, the polarized current density of EOR on catalyst c1 at 3600 s, as indicated by the chronoamperometry (CA) experiment, was still maintained to be around 1.47 mA cm?2, a value higher than the latest reported data of 1.3 mA cm?2 (measured on the pure Pd/C electrode). Presenting a novel method to prepare dotted nanowires arranged by 5 nm sized nanoparticles and showing the significant eletrocatalytic activities of the newly prepared dotted nanowires towards EOR were the major contributions of this preliminary work.  相似文献   
6.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(15):21317-21326
1T phase molybdenum disulfide (1T-MoS2) has aroused extensive concern in energy storage devices such as supercapacitors due to its large interlayer spacing, high conductivity and good hydrophilicity. However, it is struggle to synthesize 1T-MoS2 with stable 1T phase with high content. Herein, Ammonium ion intercalation molybdenum disulfide (A-MoS2) with high 1T content and stable 3D microsphere structure was successfully synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method. We explained the feasibility of ammonium ion (NH4+) intercalation through density functional theory (DFT) calculations and proved the successful intercalation of NH4+ by XRD and XPS. Through XPS fitting, the 1T phase content is calculated as high as 83.1%. The as-prepared A-MoS2 presents a stable 3D microsphere structure with the interlayer spacing expanded to 0.93 nm, which provides a wide ion diffusion channel that allows ions to pass through quickly. Moreover, the high 1T content increases the hydrophilicity of MoS2, thereby improving the wettability of the electrode, which contributes to the interaction between the electrolyte and electrode. In 1 M Na2SO4, A-MoS2 electrode material displays high specific capacitance of 228 F g?1 at 5 mV s?1 and retains 127 F g?1 at 80 mV s?1, which proves the good rate capability. Furthermore, the assembled α-MnO2//A-MoS2 asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) displayed a wide operating voltage of 2.1 V. The assembled ASC displays a high energy density of 35.8 Wh?kg?1 at a power density of 525.0 W kg?1, which indicates excellent energy storage performance.  相似文献   
7.
A appropriate size with three-dimension(3 D) channels for lithium diffusion plays an important role in constructing highperforming LiNi_(0.5)Mn_(1.5)O_4(LNMO) cathode materials, as it can not only reduce the transport path of lithium ions and electrons, but also reduce the side effects and withstand the structural strain in the process of repetitive Li~+ intercalation/deintercalation. In this work, an e fficient method for designing the hollow LNMO microsphere with 3 D channels structure by using polyethylene oxide(PEO) as soft template agent assisted solvothermal method is proposed. Experimental results indicate that PEO can make the reagents mingle evenly and nucleate slowly in the solvothermal process, thus obtaining a homogeneous distribution of carbonate precursors. In the final LNMO products, the hollow 3 D channels structure obtained by the decomposition of PEO and carbonate precursor in the calcination can provide abundant electroactive zones and electron/ion transport paths during the charge/discharge process, which benefits to improve the cycling performance and rate capability. The LNMO prepared by adding 1 g PEO possesses the most outstanding electrochemical performance, which presented an excellent discharge capacity of 143.1 mAh g~(-1) at 0.1 C and with a capacity retention of 92.2% after 100 cycles at 1 C. The superior performance attributed to the 3 D channels structure of hollow microspheres, which provide uninterrupted conductive systems and therefore achieve the stable transfer for electron/ion.  相似文献   
8.
Hook and claw pumps are used for recirculation of excess hydrogen in fuel cells. Optimization of the pump design is essential. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is an effective method for performance optimization. However, it is difficult to conduct CFD simulation because of the sharp cusp of the rotor profile. Cut cell Cartesian mesh could be the solution to handle this complex and moving geometries. The aim of this paper is to evaluate ANSYS Forte for hook and claw pumps. Firstly, the conservation accuracy of the cut cell cartesian mesh is verified using an adiabatic piston cylinder case. Then, simulation results of hook and claw type pump are compared with experimental data. Finally, simulation results of air and hydrogen are compared. The results show that the CFD simulation of hook and claw pumps using cut cell cartesian mesh could provide an efficient and effective approach for the optimization of the system.  相似文献   
9.
Limiting current density at different temperatures, backpressures, and balance gases can be used to separate molecular diffusion resistance, Knudsen diffusion resistance and local transport resistance of membrane electrode assembly (MEA). However, the measurement of limiting current density has no unified protocol. The diverse choices in the literature, either in the control of current or voltage or in the atmosphere like relative humidity and O2 concentrations, make it difficult to compare the results and identify the true bottleneck hindering the mass transport. In this work, the current-voltage curves obtained by current scanning/stepping and voltage scanning/stepping methods under dilute O2 of different concentrations and a wide range of relative humidity were measured and analyzed systematically. It is found that the voltage stepping method is superior to the other three ways of control for the reliable determination of the limiting current density. Aided with simultaneous electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, the limiting current density can be determined with pinpoint accuracy. When the limiting current density is just used to qualitatively evaluate different MEA, the voltage scanning method can be used instead for its high time efficiency. The selection of the atmosphere also plays an important role in suppressing the distortion from excessive water and reducing the spurious contribution from proton conduction resistance. It is found that O2 concentrations at 0.5 vol% and relative humidity at 90% can give the best estimation of O2 transport resistance in membrane electrode assembly.  相似文献   
10.
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